Scare off the birds, harrow up the weeds, cut down all that shades the crop. Ploughs, waggons, threshing-sledges, harrows, baskets, hurdles, winnowing-fans are the farmer's implements.
Descriptions of ploughs found in Hesiod's Works and Days and in Virgil's Georgics i.
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
Rents were paid in corn; and for the largest farm, which he thinks should employ no more than two ploughs, the rent was about six chalders of victual " when the ground is very good, and four in that which is not so good.
The only time the hoe is used is to thin out the cotton in the row; all the rest of the cultivation is by various forms of ploughs and so-called cultivators.
Several creeks and the upper Cape Fear river furnish considerable waterpower, and in or near Fayetteville are manufactories of cotton goods, silk, lumber, wooden-ware, turpentine, carriages, wagons, ploughs, edge tools and flour.
(r) The ceremony of the Three Sacred Ploughs, by which the signal for seed-time was given, apparently dating from a period when agriculture was one of the chief occupations of her worshippers.
Soillus, pertaining to substance which is stirred or tilled by implements such as ploughs and spades.
The turf is taken off either with the breast plough - a paring tool pushed forward from the breast or thighs by the workman - or with specially constructed paring ploughs or shims. The depth of the sod removed should not be too thick or burning is difficult and too much humus is destroyed unnecessarily, nor should it be too thin or the roots of the herbage are not effectually destroyed.
These are shown with coulter and share and also with wheels, which had in earlier times been fitted to ploughs by the Greeks and also by the natives of Cis-Alpine Gaul (Pliny, Hist.
By means of them the depth and width of the furrow are regulated, whereas in the case of "swing" or wheelless ploughs these points depend chiefly on the skill of the ploughman.
One type comprises two separate ploughs, one right hand and one left, which revolve on the beam, one working, while the other stands vertically above it.
Disk ploughs are unsuitable for heavy sticky soils and for stony land, but may be used with effect on stubbles and on land in a dry hard state.
In the United Kingdom steam ploughing is generally carried on on the double-engine system (introduced by Messrs John Fowler about 1865), in which case two sets of ploughs are arranged on the one-way balance principle, so that while one set is at work the other is carried clear of the ground.
In the United States and elsewhere engines drawing behind them a number of ploughs, arranged in echelon and taking perhaps The sub-soil plough has the beam and body but not the mould-board of an ordinary plough.
Gripping and draining ploughs are employed in opening the grips and trenches necessary both in surface and underground drainage.
The city's principal manufactures are carriages, ploughs, brick, machinery, sanitary ware and plumber's goods.
Among the manufactures are agricultural implements (particularly ploughs), machine-shop and foundry products (particularly mining-cars and equipment), flour, cigars, cigarboxes, brooms, and bricks and tile.
The river furnishes good water-power, and among the manufactures are wood-working machinery, ploughs, steam pumps, windmills, gas engines, paper-mill machinery, cutlery, flour, ladies' shoes, cyclometers and paper; the total value of the factory product in 1905 was $4,485,224, being 60.2% more than in 1900.
These are open tracts upon which the blue ground is spread out and left exposed to sun and rain until it crumbles and disintegrates, the process being hastened by harrowing with steam ploughs; this may require a period of three or six months, or even a year.
Although on the large farms iron ploughs, and threshing and grain-cleaning machines, have been introduced, the small cultivator prefers the simple native plough made of wood.
The implements used are two makes of iron-shod wooden ploughs; a large shovel, worked by three or five men, one working the handle, the others jerking the blade by ropes attached to it; a short sharp-pointed hoe, a bamboo rake, and a wooden barrow, all of rude construction.
Combined harvesters (which enter a field of standing grain and leave this grain piled in sacks ready for shipment), steam gang-ploughs, and other farm machinery are of truly extraordinary size and efficiency.
The iron trade in its different branches rivals the woollen trade in wealth, including the casting of metal, and the manufacture of steam engines, steam wagons, steam ploughs, machinery, tools, nails, &c. Leeds was formerly famed for the production of artistic pottery, and specimens of old Leeds ware are highly prized.
The frail wooden ploughs with a lance-headed share that only scratched the surface soil, were then superseded by iron ploughs; steam threshers replaced the oxen which trod out the corn, and modern implements were widely adopted.
Among its manufactures are dairy products (there is a large creamery), canned goods, flour and grist mill products, gasoline engines, well-machinery, barbed wire, tiles, ploughs, windmills, cornhuskers, and hay-balers.
The ploughs are driven in "gangs" under the eye of a superintendent, who rides with them.
The harrows and drills are worked in "gangs" as the Seeding' ploughs were.
This period of Iceland's existence is eventless: she had got peace but with few of its blessings; all spirit seemed to have died with the commonwealth; even shepherding and such agriculture as there had been sank to a lower stage; wagons, ploughs and carts went out of use and knowledge; architecture in timber became a lost art, and the fine carved and painted halls of the heathen days were replaced by turfwalled barns half sunk in the earth; the large decked luggers of the old days gave way to small undecked fishing-boats.
Other important manufactures in 1905 were: packed meats, particularly pork; men's clothing, especially "Kentucky jeans"; flour and grist mill products; cotton-seed oil and cake; leather, especially sole leather; foundry and machine shop products; steam-railway cars; cooperage; malt liquors; carriages and wagons, especially farm wagons; and carriage and wagon materials; agricultural implements, especially ploughs; and plumbers' supplies, including cast-iron gas and water pipes.
Among Batavia's manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods, paper-boxes and inside woodwork.
Of wheel-ploughs he observes, that " they be good on even grounde that lyeth lyghte "; and on such lands they are still most commonly employed.
His description of the different kinds of ploughs is interesting; and he justly recommends such as were drawn by two horses (some even by one horse) in preference to the weighty and clumsy machines which required four or more horses or oxen.
In 1892, at Warwick, the competitions related to ploughs - single furrow (a) for light land, (b) for strong land, (c) for press drill and broad-cast sowing; two-furrow; three-furrow; digging (a) for light land, (b) for heavy land; and one-way ploughs.
Carthage is a jobbing centre for a fruit and grain producing region; live-stock (especially harness horses) is raised in the vicinity; and among the city's manufactures are lime, flour, canned fruits, furniture, bed springs and mattresses, mining and quarrying machinery, ploughs and woollen goods.
From eight to ten of these ploughs follow each other around the vast section.
The cotton gin, steel ploughs, tractors, combines, and a thousand other inventions would forever change the farm.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
At this period ploughs were made almost wholly of wood, the mouldboard being cased with plates of iron.