The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.
Cattle were hired for ploughing, working the watering-machines, carting, threshing, etc. The Code fixed a statutory wage for sowers, ox-drivers, field-labourers, and hire for oxen, asses, &c.
The summer fallow with repeated ploughing was its basis.
Harrow down the clods, level the ridges by cross ploughing, work the land thoroughly.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
The following are typical passages: " April is a good season for fallowing, if the earth breaks up behind the plough; for second fallowing after St John's Day when the dust rises behind the plough; for seed-ploughing when the earth is well settled and not too cracked; however, the busy man cannot be always waiting on the seasons."
" Know that an acre sown with wheat takes three ploughings, except lands that are sown each year, and that each ploughing costs 6d.
Next comes a second ploughing of the fallow; and afterwards, in the latter end of June, the mowing of the meadows begins.
The fallow received a third ploughing in September, and was sown about Michaelmas.
He was thus led to adopt that system of sowing his crops in rows or drills, so wide apart as to admit of tillage of the intervals, both by ploughing and hoeing, being continued until they had well-nigh arrived at maturity.
Large districts still clung to the old common-field system, to the old habits of ploughing with teams of four or eight, and to slovenly methods of cultivation.
In Canada and the United States this rational employment of a leguminous crop for ploughing in green is largely resorted to for the amelioration of worn-out wheat lands and other soils, the condition of which has been lowered to an unremunerative level by the repeated growth year after year of a cereal crop. The well-known paper of Lawes, Gilbert and Pugh (1861), " On the Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation,.
In the years 1903 and 1904 petrol motors adapted for ploughing and other agricultural operations formed a prominent feature of the exhibits.
On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
By growing mustard and ploughing it in green the ground is made obnoxious to the wireworms, and may even be cleared of them.
Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands.
The Karens and Shans who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding their crops.
In the operation of ploughing the furrow slice is separated from the soil below, and although in humid soils this layer may be left to settle by degrees, in semi-arid regions this loosened layer becomes.
Green manures are crops which are grown especially for the purpose of ploughing into the land in a green or actively growing state.
The ploughing-in of green crops is in many respects like the addition of farm-yard manure.
A a boat or ship; the same word would be applied to the ship "ploughing" through the waves, and to the implement "ploughing" through the earth.
During the greater part of the 19th century the ideal of ploughing was to preserve the furrow-slice unbroken, and this object was attained by the use of long mould-boards which turned the slices gently and gradually, laying them over against one another at an angle of 45°, thus providing drainage at the bottom of the furrow, and exposing the greatest possible surface to the influences of the weather.
Perhaps their most common use is in ploughing on a large scale in conjunction with steam power.
In the United Kingdom steam ploughing is generally carried on on the double-engine system (introduced by Messrs John Fowler about 1865), in which case two sets of ploughs are arranged on the one-way balance principle, so that while one set is at work the other is carried clear of the ground.
1 Methods of the "setting-out" of land to be ploughed together with a full discussion of other technical details relating to ploughing will be found in ch.
He had taught his child to whistle, dined with his servants, talked of "worldly things such as baking, brewing, enclosing, ploughing and mining," preferred walking to riding, and denounced the debasement of the coinage.
One was propitious to marriage, another to entrance upon school-life, a third to the first ploughing, a fourth to laying the foundation of a house.
According to the story, during the ploughing of a field near Tarquinii a being of boyish appearance sprang out of the furrow.
Originally it is thought to have been the measure of a day's ploughing, in which case the dimensions given above would scarcely be reached.
Some regard the legend as a chthonian myth, Aea (Colchis) being the under-world in the Aeolic religious system from which Jason liberates himself and his betrothed; others, in view of certain resemblances between the story of Jason and that of Cadmus (the ploughing of the field, the sowing of the dragon's teeth, the fight with the Sparti, who are finally set fighting with one another by a stone hurled into their midst), associate both with Demeter the corn-goddess, and refer certain episodes to practices in use at country festivals, e.g.
His name is probably connected with the "triple ploughing" (Tpis, 7roXEiv), recommended in Hesiod's Works and Days and celebrated at an annual festival.
Later, as the god of ploughing, he is confounded with Osiris, and on a vase-painting at St Petersburg he is represented leaving Egypt in his dragon-drawn chariot on his journey round the world.
In 1652 he amused himself with ploughing and bell-ringing, In the Life he speaks of himself and his family as Wood or a Wood, the last form being a pedantic return to old usage adopted by himself.
Here the agricultural character of her ritual is well marked; the first oxen used in ploughing were, according to an Argive myth, dedicated to her as E v cSia; and the sprouting ears of corn were called "the flowers of Hera."
Of the best ploughing land a little over 6 Td.
It was he who coined the phrase (Birmingham, 1894) as to the government's "ploughing the sands" in their endeavour to pass Liberal legislation with a hostile House of Lords.
In Mr Asquith's phrase, it was "ploughing the sands."
"ploughing his furrow alone," as he afterwards phrased it.
The earth, baked hard by the summer heat, is thus softened, and ploughing begins at once.
The ploughing for the lord, for instance, was not only imposed in the shape of a certain number of days in the week, but took sometimes the shape of a certain number of acres which the village had to plough and to sow for the lord irrespectively of the time employed on it.
Magnificent red bulls are bred by the farmers for ploughing and other farming operations, and for the transport of goods.
In some sections a system of dry-farming, by which the scanty rainfall is protected from evaporation by deep ploughing and mulching the soil, has proved profitable.
Good mules can be obtained in several districts, and small hardy oxen are largely bred for ploughing and transport.
Among them, for example, were twelve deities of ploughing and harvest operations, who were invoked with Tellus and Ceres.
The latter is said to have married Pfemysl, a peasant who was found ploughing his field - a legend that is common in most Slavic countries.
Under less favourable circumstances the land is prepared from July till October by ploughing, weeding and manuring.
The bulls are usually kept for ploughing, the cow being preferred for meat.
"You profess only to be a farmer; no one sees your ploughing, what do you mean?"
Surface drainage is usually effected by ploughing the land into convex ridges off which the water runs into intervening furrows and is conveyed into ditches.
Arthur Young, with whom he had corresponded years before on the mysteries of deep ploughing and fattening hogs, added a cogent polemical chapter to that ever admirable work, in which he showed that he knew as much more than Burke about the old system of France as he knew more than Burke about soils and roots.