The summer fallow with repeated ploughing was its basis.
The ploughing begins in October, and continues a month or six weeks, according to the season.
Of the best ploughing land a little over 6 Td.
Under less favourable circumstances the land is prepared from July till October by ploughing, weeding and manuring.
Arthur Young, with whom he had corresponded years before on the mysteries of deep ploughing and fattening hogs, added a cogent polemical chapter to that ever admirable work, in which he showed that he knew as much more than Burke about the old system of France as he knew more than Burke about soils and roots.
Harrow down the clods, level the ridges by cross ploughing, work the land thoroughly.
" Know that an acre sown with wheat takes three ploughings, except lands that are sown each year, and that each ploughing costs 6d.
In Canada and the United States this rational employment of a leguminous crop for ploughing in green is largely resorted to for the amelioration of worn-out wheat lands and other soils, the condition of which has been lowered to an unremunerative level by the repeated growth year after year of a cereal crop. The well-known paper of Lawes, Gilbert and Pugh (1861), " On the Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation,.
During the greater part of the 19th century the ideal of ploughing was to preserve the furrow-slice unbroken, and this object was attained by the use of long mould-boards which turned the slices gently and gradually, laying them over against one another at an angle of 45°, thus providing drainage at the bottom of the furrow, and exposing the greatest possible surface to the influences of the weather.
One was propitious to marriage, another to entrance upon school-life, a third to the first ploughing, a fourth to laying the foundation of a house.
Here the agricultural character of her ritual is well marked; the first oxen used in ploughing were, according to an Argive myth, dedicated to her as E v cSia; and the sprouting ears of corn were called "the flowers of Hera."
It was he who coined the phrase (Birmingham, 1894) as to the government's "ploughing the sands" in their endeavour to pass Liberal legislation with a hostile House of Lords.
In Mr Asquith's phrase, it was "ploughing the sands."
"ploughing his furrow alone," as he afterwards phrased it.
The earth, baked hard by the summer heat, is thus softened, and ploughing begins at once.
The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.
Cattle were hired for ploughing, working the watering-machines, carting, threshing, etc. The Code fixed a statutory wage for sowers, ox-drivers, field-labourers, and hire for oxen, asses, &c.
Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
Job, besides immense possessions in flocks and herds, had 500 yoke of oxen, which he employed in ploughing, and a " very great husbandry."
Plough the fallow in early spring, and plough frequently - twice in winter, twice in summer unless your land is poor, when a light ploughing in September will do.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
The following are typical passages: " April is a good season for fallowing, if the earth breaks up behind the plough; for second fallowing after St John's Day when the dust rises behind the plough; for seed-ploughing when the earth is well settled and not too cracked; however, the busy man cannot be always waiting on the seasons."
Next comes a second ploughing of the fallow; and afterwards, in the latter end of June, the mowing of the meadows begins.
The fallow received a third ploughing in September, and was sown about Michaelmas.
He was thus led to adopt that system of sowing his crops in rows or drills, so wide apart as to admit of tillage of the intervals, both by ploughing and hoeing, being continued until they had well-nigh arrived at maturity.
Large districts still clung to the old common-field system, to the old habits of ploughing with teams of four or eight, and to slovenly methods of cultivation.
In 1834 James Smith of Deanston promulgated his system of thorough draining and deep ploughing, the adoption of which immeasurably improved the clay lands of the country.
In the years 1903 and 1904 petrol motors adapted for ploughing and other agricultural operations formed a prominent feature of the exhibits.
On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
By growing mustard and ploughing it in green the ground is made obnoxious to the wireworms, and may even be cleared of them.
Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands.
The Karens and Shans who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding their crops.
Every effort should be made to prepare a good mealy tilth by suitable ploughing, harrowing and consolidation.
In the operation of ploughing the furrow slice is separated from the soil below, and although in humid soils this layer may be left to settle by degrees, in semi-arid regions this loosened layer becomes.
Green manures are crops which are grown especially for the purpose of ploughing into the land in a green or actively growing state.
The ploughing-in of green crops is in many respects like the addition of farm-yard manure.
Perhaps their most common use is in ploughing on a large scale in conjunction with steam power.
In the United Kingdom steam ploughing is generally carried on on the double-engine system (introduced by Messrs John Fowler about 1865), in which case two sets of ploughs are arranged on the one-way balance principle, so that while one set is at work the other is carried clear of the ground.
1 Methods of the "setting-out" of land to be ploughed together with a full discussion of other technical details relating to ploughing will be found in ch.
He had taught his child to whistle, dined with his servants, talked of "worldly things such as baking, brewing, enclosing, ploughing and mining," preferred walking to riding, and denounced the debasement of the coinage.
According to the story, during the ploughing of a field near Tarquinii a being of boyish appearance sprang out of the furrow.
Originally it is thought to have been the measure of a day's ploughing, in which case the dimensions given above would scarcely be reached.
Some regard the legend as a chthonian myth, Aea (Colchis) being the under-world in the Aeolic religious system from which Jason liberates himself and his betrothed; others, in view of certain resemblances between the story of Jason and that of Cadmus (the ploughing of the field, the sowing of the dragon's teeth, the fight with the Sparti, who are finally set fighting with one another by a stone hurled into their midst), associate both with Demeter the corn-goddess, and refer certain episodes to practices in use at country festivals, e.g.
His name is probably connected with the "triple ploughing" (Tpis, 7roXEiv), recommended in Hesiod's Works and Days and celebrated at an annual festival.
Later, as the god of ploughing, he is confounded with Osiris, and on a vase-painting at St Petersburg he is represented leaving Egypt in his dragon-drawn chariot on his journey round the world.
In 1652 he amused himself with ploughing and bell-ringing, In the Life he speaks of himself and his family as Wood or a Wood, the last form being a pedantic return to old usage adopted by himself.
The principal of these was ploughing the fields belonging to the lord, and for such ploughing the peasant had not only to appear personally as a labourer, but to bring his oxen and plough, or rather to join with his oxen and plough in the work imposed on the village: the heavy, costly plough with a team of eight oxen had to be made up by several peasants contributing their beasts and implements towards its composition.
Magnificent red bulls are bred by the farmers for ploughing and other farming operations, and for the transport of goods.
In some sections a system of dry-farming, by which the scanty rainfall is protected from evaporation by deep ploughing and mulching the soil, has proved profitable.
Good mules can be obtained in several districts, and small hardy oxen are largely bred for ploughing and transport.
Among them, for example, were twelve deities of ploughing and harvest operations, who were invoked with Tellus and Ceres.
The latter is said to have married Pfemysl, a peasant who was found ploughing his field - a legend that is common in most Slavic countries.
The bulls are usually kept for ploughing, the cow being preferred for meat.
"You profess only to be a farmer; no one sees your ploughing, what do you mean?"
Let us assume the conditions prevailing upon a bonanza farm of 5000 acres, and briefly describe the process of wheat production from the ploughing of the land to the delivery of the grain in the final market.
About forty men are employed upon a farm of 5000 acres during the ploughing season.
Surface drainage is usually effected by ploughing the land into convex ridges off which the water runs into intervening furrows and is conveyed into ditches.
With the fall of water there is an increase in the specific gravity, which in 1850 was 1.17, and in September 1901 was I 179; in 1850 the proportion of solids by weight was 22.282%, in September 1901 it was 25.221; at the earlier of these dates the solids in a litre of water weighed 260.69 grams, at the latter date 302'122 grams. The exact cause of this cyclic variation is unknown: the low level of 1906 is usually regarded as the result of extensive irrigation and ploughing in the surrounding country, which have robbed the lake, in part, of its normal supply of water.
The ploughing is done by the men, but women and girls do the reaping.