The ground should be ploughed about four times and all weeds removed.
It is then repeatedly ploughed until the water becomes worked into the soil, and the whole reduced to thick mud.
I nto compounds which when ploughed into the land become humus.
It is common to cut down the green wheat and barley before the ear forms, for fodder, and the repetition of this, with barley at least, is said not to injure the grain crop. Bellew gives the following statement of the manner in which the soil is sometimes worked in the Kandahar district: - Barley is sown in November; in March and April it is twice cut for fodder; in June the grain is reaped, the ground is ploughed and manured and sown with tobacco, which yields two cuttings.
There are the same difficulties to be contended with as in hunting with the ordinary harrier, and a very few days' running will teach the youthful sportsman that he cannot run at the same pace over sound ground and over a deep ploughed field, up hill and down, or along and across furrows.
The earliest monuments: a more valuable variety, woolly with curved horns, made its appearance in the Middle Kingdom and pushed out the older form: sheep were driven into the ploughed fields to break the clods and trample in the seed.
Other essential conditions of success will commonly include the liberal application of potash and phosphatic manures, and sometimes chalking or liming for the leguminous crop. As to how long the leguminous crop should occupy the land, the extent to which it should be consumed on the land, or the manure from its consumption be returned, and under what conditions the whole or part of it should be ploughed in - these are points which must be decided as they arise in practice.
The growing crops should be ploughed in before flowering occurs; they should not be buried deeply, since decay and nitrification take place most rapidly and satisfactorily when there is free access of air to the decaying material.
Manure that is to be used for the crop should be broken up as fine as possible, for the more completely manure of any kind can be mixed with the soil the better the crop will be, and, of course, if it is dug or ploughed in in large unbroken lumps it cannot be properly commingled.
Blith speaks of an instrument which ploughed, sowed and harrowed at the same time; and the setting of corn was then a subject of much discussion.
In addition to the use of several kinds of animal and other manures, green crops were sometimes ploughed in by the Romans.
In planting rice three methods are in use: the cultivation of swamp-rice in irrigated fields; the planting of ploughed areas; and the planting of hill-rice by sowing each grain separately in holes bored for the purpose.
For example, the country gone over is seldom level springy turf; it is up hill and down dale, across ridge and furrow, over ground studded with ant-hills (which, unlike mole-hills, are often very hard), over ploughed or boggy land.
In Lombardy a six-year shift is common: either wheat, clover, maize, rice, rice, rice (the last year manured with lupines) or maize, wheat followed by clover, clover, clover ploughed in, and rice, rice and rice manured with lupines.
1 Methods of the "setting-out" of land to be ploughed together with a full discussion of other technical details relating to ploughing will be found in ch.
To effect a remodelling when the ground is in stubble, let it be ploughed up, harrowed, and cleaned as in a summer fallow, the levelling-box employed when required, the stuff from the conductors and main drains spread abroad, and the beds ploughed into shape - all operations that can be performed at little expense.
"I too, 0 brahmin," said the beggar, "plough and sow; and having ploughed and sown I eat."
Iasion (or Iasius), a beautiful youth, inspired her with love for him in a thrice-ploughed field in Crete, the fruit of their union being Plutus (wealth).
For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.
Land ploughed and otherwise tilled, but left unseeded during the summer, is sown with wheat in the succeeding autumn or spring.
The quantity of land ploughed by a yoke of oxen in one day was called a yoke or acre.
Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.
Under the old Norfolk or four-course rotation (roots, barley, clover, wheat) land thus seeded with clover or grass seeds was intended to be ploughed up at the end of a year.
The ground is then left unworked and open to the crumbling influence of frost till towards the end of winter, when it is stirred with the cultivator followed by the harrows, or in some cases ploughed with a shallow furrow.
Proerosia, at which prayers were offered for an abundant harvest, before the land was ploughed for sowing.
The seed appears to have been sometimes ploughed in, and at other times to have been covered by harrowing.
The " buckshot clays " of the backlands, which are so stiff that they can scarcely be ploughed until flooded and softened, and are remarkably retentive of moisture, are ideal rice soil; but none of the alluvial lands has an underlying hardpan, and they cannot as a rule be drained sufficiently to make the use of heavy harvesting machinery possible.
The Taurus solar interpretation of the sign goes back to the far off time when the year began with Taurus, and the sun was conceived of as a bull entering upon the great furrow of heaven as he ploughed his way among the stars.
He showed his hatred for the Shiites by causing the mausoleum erected over the tomb of Hosain at Kerbela, together with all the buildings surrounding it, to be levelled to the ground and the site to be ploughed up, and by forbidding any one to visit the spot.
The land, having been ploughed in autumn, is prepared for sowing by working it with the grubber, harrow and roller, until a fine tilth is obtained.
In May, after the first fall of rain, a nursery ground is ploughed three times, and the seed scattered broadcast.
The field is ploughed when the early rains set in, ten or twelve times over, till the soil is reduced nearly to dust, the seed being sown broadcast in April or May.
The wheat region is a country of heavy snows, and of severe, dry cold; but when March comes the snows begin to melt away, and by April the ploughed land is dry enough for the harrow.
Under this system the clover is ploughed up in the autumn, the nitrogen stored up in its roots being left in the soil for the nourishment of the cereal crop. The following summer the wheat crop is harvested, and an opportunity is afforded for extirpating weeds which in the three previous years have received little check.
A ploughed field is divided into lands or sections of equal width separated by furrows.
Throughout the country bridges were shattered, roads were broken up like ploughed fields, and the beds of rivers were dislocated.
It is next to be well ploughed and harrowed; and about 10 lb of clover seed must be sown on an acre in April or the end of March.
When dry and in a crumbly state it is harrowed and spread and finally ploughed in and mixed with the soil.
In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other " cleaning " crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in.
Guanos, bone-meal and all other organic materials, which are spread over or dug or ploughed into the land for the benefit of farm and' garden crops, is bound up with the action of these minute living beings.