They are very thin-walled membranes, very poor in blood-vessels, formed by the bulged-out pleural or peritoneal covering of the lungs, through the parabronchial tubes of which they are filled with air.
Pig, Pleural ganglion.
In some cases each pleural ganglion is connected with the opposite branch of the visceral commissure by anastomosis with the pallial nerve, a condition which is called dialyneury; or there may be a direct connective from the pleural ganglion to the visceral ganglion of the opposite side, which is called zygoneury.
The connexion with the pericardium of pl, Pleural ganglion.
Pe, The fused pleural and pedal nerves.
O, o, Right and left olfactory ce.pl, The cerebro-pleural conganglia and osphradia re nective.
At the same time, the junction of the visceral loop above the intestine prevents in all Streptoneura the shortening of the visceral loop, and it is rare to find a fusion of the visceral ganglia with either pleural, pedal or cerebral - a fusion which can and does a, Anus.
Co, Pleural ganglion.
V, Pleural and pedal ganglion c, Eye.
P1, Pleural ganglion.
(From Gegenbaur, after Bergh.) A, Cerebral, pleural and visceral ganglia united.
And just pl, Pleural ganglion.
A wing is an outgrowth from the dorsal and pleural regions of the thoracic segment that bears it, and microscopic examination shows it to consist of a double layer of cuticularized skin, the two layers being in contact except where they are thickened and folded to form the firm tubular nervures, which serve as a supporting framework for the wing membrane, enclose air-tubes, and convey blood.
The adult stage, for example, has been found in the nasal passages of sheep, goats, horses and even of man, and the larval stage in the pleural and peritoneal cavities of dogs and cats.
An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptychoderidae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so as to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease.
Correlated with the presence of the genital pleurae there is a pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyngeal region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the free border of the genital pleurae.
Ptychodera ruficollis), seeming to indicate that the pleural folds have in such cases been secondarily suppressed.
VIII to XIII, The six somites of the mesosoma, each with a movable pleural spine and a pair of dorsal entopophysis or muscle-attaching ingrowths.
38), like that of Limulus and Scorpio, and that lateral spines on the pleura of the somites are frequent as in Limulus, and that neither metasomatic fusion of somites nor post-anal spine, nor lateral pleural spines are found in any Crustacean, nor all three together in any Arthropod besides the trilobites and Limulus - the claim of the trilobites to be considered as representing one order of a lower grade of Arachnida, comparable to the grade Entomostraca of the Crustacea, seems to be established.
The body and head have the two pleural regions of each somite flattened and expanded on either side of the true gut-holding body-axis.
In a given case of anasarca due to a cause acting generally, it will be found that the liquid of the pleural cavity always contains the highest percentage of proteid, that of the peritoneal cavity comes next, that of the cerebral ventricles follows this, and the liquid of the subcutaneous areolar tissue contains the lowest.
The reason of this is apparently that the negative pressure of the pleural, and partly of the peritoneal, cavity tends to aspirate a liquid relatively thicker, so to speak, than that effused where no such extraneous mechanism is at work (James).
The tergal and pleural elements of the pygidium are generally well marked.
19), consisting of a cerebro-pleural ganglion-pair, united by connectives to a pedal ganglion-pair and a visceral ganglion-pair (parietosplanchnic) .
19, B, a) and connected in front of it by a commissure, are the representatives of the cerebral and pleural ganglia of the typical Mollusc, which are not here differentiated as they are in Gastropods.
Formerly the posterior pair of ganglia were identified as simply the osphradial ganglia, and the anterior pair as the cerebral, pleural and visceral ganglia united into a single pair.
But it has since been discovered that in the Protobranchia the cerebral ganglia and the pleural are distinct, each giving origin to its own connective which runs to the pedal ganglion.
This deficiency is very usual in the class; at the same time, many Lamellibranchs have tentacles on the edge of the mantle supplied by a pair of large well-developed nerves, which are given off from the cerebro-pleural ganglion-pair, A, When free swimming, shows the two dentigerous valves widely open.
In them the foot has a flat ventral surface used for creeping, as in Gastropods, the byssus gland is but slightly developed, the pleural ganglia are distinct, there is a relic of the pharyngeal cavity, in some forms with a pair of glandular sacs, the gonads retain their primitive connexion with the renal cavities, and the otocysts are open.
The ventral cords are the pedal, the dorso-lateral, the pleural, the former innervating the foot, the latter the mantle.
The pedal cords are connected by commissures, and the pedal and pleural of each side are similarly connected.
Pedal and pleural on each side are connected by a pleuro-pedal connective Each pleural ganglion gives off a long nerve which supplies the viscera, and the two unite posteriorly below the intestine.
Pl.g, Pleural ganglion.
From this pass off two pairs of cords, the pleural and pedal, in Proneomenia separate from their origin, in Neomenia united at first and diverging at a pleural ganglion.
The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.
According to Spengel, the pair of ganglia near the mouth, variously called labial or cerebral, represent the cerebral pair and pleural pair of a gastropod combined, and the parietosplanchnic pair correspond to the visceral ganglia, the commissure which connects them with the cerebro-pleural representing the visceral commissure.
Close to each cerebral ganglion is a pleural ganglion, and each is connected by a long nerve with the pedal ganglion of the same side, the two connectives of either side being united in the distal part of their course.
The pleural ganglia are also united by a long visceral commissure as in Lamellibranchs, and this commissure bears two ganglia lying close beneath the epidermis in front of the anus.