GAIUS LICINIUS CALVUS STOLO, Roman statesman, the chief representative of the plebeian Licinian gens, was tribune in 377 B.C., consul in 361.
Virginius, a plebeian centurion.
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
She was worshipped almost exclusively by plebeians, and her temple near the Circus Maximus was under the care of the plebeian aediles, one of whose duties was the superintendence of the corn-market.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
That is to say, it consisted of the remains of the old patriciate, together with those plebeian families any members of which had been chosen to curule offices.
The practical result of the Licinian reform was that the great plebeian families became, for all practical purposes, patrician.
Just as the old patricians had striven to keep plebeians out of high offices, so now the new nobles, patrician and plebeian alike, strove to keep "new men," men who had not the jus imaginum, out of high office.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
While at Rome the distinction of patrician and plebeian was never wiped out, while it remained to the last a legal distinction even when practical privilege had turned the other way, at Athens, after the democracy had reached its full growth, the distinction seems to have had no legal existence whatever.
At Rome down to the last it made a difference whether the candidate for office was patrician or plebeian, though the difference was in later times commonly to the advantage of the plebeian.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.
The whole lesson is lost if the words "patrician" and "plebeian" are used in any but their strict sense.
The agricultural plebeian of old Rome and the feudal noble of contemporary Europe were both of them at Venice impossible characters.
He said among other things: " The Jacobins of contemporary social democracy - the Bolsheviks - desire that the people, that is the proletarians and peasants, should settle the reckoning of Monarchy and Aristocracy in plebeian fashion - by ruthlessly annihilating the enemies of freedom."
But the phrase "Campanian arrogance" seems to have been used proverbially for "gasconade"; and, as there was a plebeian gens Naevia in Rome, it is quite as probable that he was by birth a Roman citizen.
GAIUS FLAMINIUS, Roman statesman and general, of plebeian family.
He probably also instituted the "plebeian" games.
In theory, the twelve plebeian centuries were open to all freeborn youths of the age of seventeen, although in practice preference was given to the members of the older families.
Aedilis), in Roman antiquities, the name of certain Roman magistrates, probably derived from aedis (a temple), because they had the care of the temple of Ceres, where the plebeian archives were kept.
They were originally two in number, called " plebeian " aediles.
Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they exercised certain police functions, were empowered to inflict fines and managed the plebeian and Roman games.
But although the curule aediles always ranked higher than the plebeian, their functions gradually approximated and became practically identical.
But the Kabuki-za and its yakusha (actors) remained always a plebeian institution.
Returning home, he was appointed tutor to the sons of Henry II., by one of whom (Charles IX.) he was afterwards made grand almoner (1561) and by the other (Henry III.) was appointed, in spite of his plebeian origin, commander of the order of the Holy Ghost.
GAIUS MARIUS (155-86 B.C.), Roman general, of plebeian descent, the son of a small farmer of Cereatae (mod.
The gens contained a patrician and a plebeian family; the chief representatives of the former were the Pulchri, of the latter the Marcelli (see Marcellus).
Enamoured of the beautiful daughter of the plebeian centurion Virginius, Claudius attempted to seize her by an abuse of justice.
The nobles not only had privileges of rank and dignity, but substantial power over the plebeian or peasant class (macehualli).
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
The plebeian assembly, which had perhaps originally met by curiae, was organized on the basis of the territorial tribes in 471 B.C. This change suggested a renewed organization of the whole people for comitial purposes.
In spite of the formal differences of these four assemblies and the real distinction springing from the fact that patricians were not members of the plebeian bodies, the view which is appropriate to the developed Roman constitution is that the people expressed its will equally through all, although the mode of expression varied with the channel.
The concilium plebis, although voting, like this last assembly, by tribes, could be summoned and presided over only by plebeian magistrates, and never included the patricians.
Its utterances (plebiscite) had the full force of law; it elected the tribunes of the plebs and the plebeian aediles, and it pronounced judgment on the penalties which they proposed.
MARCUS FULVIUS NOBILIOR, Roman general, a member of one of the most important families of the plebeian Fulvian gens.
After the death of Peter the Great, Golitsuin became the recognized head of the old Conservative party which had never forgiven Peter for putting away Eudoxia and marrying the plebeian Martha Skavronskaya.
439 B.C.), a wealthy Roman plebeian, who during a severe famine bought up a large amount of corn and sold it at a low price to the people.
Mommsen that the plebeian order had its sole origin in the clients who attached themselves in a position of semi-freedom to the heads of patrician houses, and gradually evolved a freedom and citizenship of their own (see Patron And Client).
Again, a method of taking up Roman citizenship which is well attested for a very early period reveals the possibility of a plebeian who does not stand in any relation to a patron.
Such an immigrant, therefore, must have become at once a free plebeian citizen of Rome.
Incidentally this involved an extension of plebeian privilege in two directions.
First, it was necessary to unify the plebeian order by putting the legal status of the clients on a level with that of the unattached plebeians; and again enrolment in the army involved registration in the tribes and centuries; and as the army soon developed into a legislative assembly meeting in centuries (comitia centuriata), the whole citizen body, including plebeians, now acquired a share of political power, which had hitherto belonged solely to the patricians.
At the close of the monarchy, the plebeian possessed the private rights of citizenship in entirety, except for his inability to contract a legal marriage with a patrician, and one of the public rights, that of giving his vote in the assembly.'
Since the plebeian element in the state had an immense numerical preponderance over the patrician these disabilities were not widely spread, and seem generally to have been cheerfully borne as the price of belonging to the families still recognized as the oldest and noblest in Rome.
But the adoption of P. Clodius Pulcher into a plebeian family in J9 B.C. with a view to election to the tribunate shows that a rejection of patrician rights (transitio ad plebem) was not difficult to effect by any patrician who preferred actual power to the dignity of ancient descent.
Patrician rank seems to have been regarded as a necessary attribute of the princeps; and in two cases we are told that it was conferred upon a plebeian princeps by the senate (Vita Juliani, 3; Macrini, 7) .
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
Of one family, of the plebeian Claudian gens, only a single member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, tribune in 454 B.C., is known.
Not long after his arrival in Sijistan, Ibn Ash`ath, exasperated by the masterful tone of Hajjaj, the plebeian, towards himself, the high-born, decided to revolt.