But the Kabuki-za and its yakusha (actors) remained always a plebeian institution.
In theory, the twelve plebeian centuries were open to all freeborn youths of the age of seventeen, although in practice preference was given to the members of the older families.
At Rome down to the last it made a difference whether the candidate for office was patrician or plebeian, though the difference was in later times commonly to the advantage of the plebeian.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
The agricultural plebeian of old Rome and the feudal noble of contemporary Europe were both of them at Venice impossible characters.
But the phrase "Campanian arrogance" seems to have been used proverbially for "gasconade"; and, as there was a plebeian gens Naevia in Rome, it is quite as probable that he was by birth a Roman citizen.
Aedilis), in Roman antiquities, the name of certain Roman magistrates, probably derived from aedis (a temple), because they had the care of the temple of Ceres, where the plebeian archives were kept.
GAIUS MARIUS (155-86 B.C.), Roman general, of plebeian descent, the son of a small farmer of Cereatae (mod.
Enamoured of the beautiful daughter of the plebeian centurion Virginius, Claudius attempted to seize her by an abuse of justice.
The nobles not only had privileges of rank and dignity, but substantial power over the plebeian or peasant class (macehualli).
The plebeian assembly, which had perhaps originally met by curiae, was organized on the basis of the territorial tribes in 471 B.C. This change suggested a renewed organization of the whole people for comitial purposes.
The concilium plebis, although voting, like this last assembly, by tribes, could be summoned and presided over only by plebeian magistrates, and never included the patricians.
Its utterances (plebiscite) had the full force of law; it elected the tribunes of the plebs and the plebeian aediles, and it pronounced judgment on the penalties which they proposed.
MARCUS FULVIUS NOBILIOR, Roman general, a member of one of the most important families of the plebeian Fulvian gens.
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
GAIUS FLAMINIUS, Roman statesman and general, of plebeian family.
Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they exercised certain police functions, were empowered to inflict fines and managed the plebeian and Roman games.
But although the curule aediles always ranked higher than the plebeian, their functions gradually approximated and became practically identical.
Returning home, he was appointed tutor to the sons of Henry II., by one of whom (Charles IX.) he was afterwards made grand almoner (1561) and by the other (Henry III.) was appointed, in spite of his plebeian origin, commander of the order of the Holy Ghost.
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
In spite of the formal differences of these four assemblies and the real distinction springing from the fact that patricians were not members of the plebeian bodies, the view which is appropriate to the developed Roman constitution is that the people expressed its will equally through all, although the mode of expression varied with the channel.
439 B.C.), a wealthy Roman plebeian, who during a severe famine bought up a large amount of corn and sold it at a low price to the people.
Since the plebeian element in the state had an immense numerical preponderance over the patrician these disabilities were not widely spread, and seem generally to have been cheerfully borne as the price of belonging to the families still recognized as the oldest and noblest in Rome.
Of one family, of the plebeian Claudian gens, only a single member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, tribune in 454 B.C., is known.
Not long after his arrival in Sijistan, Ibn Ash`ath, exasperated by the masterful tone of Hajjaj, the plebeian, towards himself, the high-born, decided to revolt.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
Just as the old patricians had striven to keep plebeians out of high offices, so now the new nobles, patrician and plebeian alike, strove to keep "new men," men who had not the jus imaginum, out of high office.
But there was still the difference that in the old state of things the plebeian was shut out by law, while in the new state of things no law shut out the new man.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
The word "plebeian," in its strict sense, is no more contemptuous than the word commoner !in England.
Again, a method of taking up Roman citizenship which is well attested for a very early period reveals the possibility of a plebeian who does not stand in any relation to a patron.
At the close of the monarchy, the plebeian possessed the private rights of citizenship in entirety, except for his inability to contract a legal marriage with a patrician, and one of the public rights, that of giving his vote in the assembly.'
But the adoption of P. Clodius Pulcher into a plebeian family in J9 B.C. with a view to election to the tribunate shows that a rejection of patrician rights (transitio ad plebem) was not difficult to effect by any patrician who preferred actual power to the dignity of ancient descent.
Patrician rank seems to have been regarded as a necessary attribute of the princeps; and in two cases we are told that it was conferred upon a plebeian princeps by the senate (Vita Juliani, 3; Macrini, 7) .
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
But its aristocratic organization, based as this was on property qualifications which gave the greatest voting power to the richest men, prevented it from being a fitting channel for the expression of plebeian claims. Hence the plebs adopted a new political organization of their own.
"The people build cities, princes pull them down; the industry of the citizens creates wealth for rapacious lords to plunder; plebeian magistrates pass good laws for kings to violate; the people love peace, and their rulers stir up war."
LUCULLUS, the name of a Roman plebeian family of the Licinian gens.
More than Naevius and Plautus he represented the pure native element in that literature, the mind and character of Latium, the plebeian pugnacity, which was one of the great forces in the Roman state.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
When one branch of a family was admitted and one shut out we have an analogy to the patrician and plebeian Claudii, though the distinction had come about in quite another way.