In Plato's thought the belief held a prominent position.
Fairbairn, " Plato's arguments for immortality, isolated, modernized, may be feeble, even valueless, but allowed to stand where and as he himself puts them, they have an altogether different worth.
He adds a reason that recalls one of Plato's, " As manifestly as the human soul is by means of the senses linked to the present life, so manifestly it attaches itself by reason, and the conceptions, conclusions, anticipations and efforts to which reason leads it, to God and eternity."
The attitude of Paul toward glossolaly among his converts strikingly resembles Plato's opinion as expressed in the Timaeus, p. 72, of the enthusiastic ecstasies of the ancient µav ns (soothsayer).
With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
Aristotle has impressed the ordinary mind chiefly by his criticism of Plato's ideal theory; and therefore he is often ranked as the father of empiricists.
Grote calls attention to the contrast between Plato's and Aristotle's way of conceiving the gradations of mind (Aristotle, ii.
Plato's splendid version of the Apology of Socrates.
Whereas Plato's main problem had been the organization of the perfect state, and Aristotle's intellect had ranged with fresh interest over all departments of the knowable, political speculation had become a mockery with the extinction of free political life, and knowledge as such had lost its freshness for the Greeks of the Roman Empire.
The One, the Good, and the Idea of the Good were identical in Plato's mind, and the Good was therefore not deprived of intelligible essence.
He attributed to his early discipline in this logic an impatience of vague language which in all likelihood was really fostered in him by his study of the Platonic dialogues and of Bentham, for he always had in himself more 6f Plato's fertile ingenuity in canvassing the meaning of vague terms than the schoolman's rigid consistency in the use of them.
Archytas may be quoted as an example of Plato's perfect ruler, the philosopher-king, who combines practical sagacity with high character and philosophic insight.
It is more likely that he heard one of Plato's followers, inasmuch as Plato died when he was only four years old, if the above dates are correct.
Sometimes he thinks that they came direct from God, like all good things, but he is also fond of maintaining that many of Plato's best thoughts were borrowed from the Hebrew prophets; and he makes the same statement in regard to the wisdom of the other philosophers.
The universals, therefore, have no existence, as universals, in rerum natura; and Thomas endorses, in this sense, the polemic of Aristotle against Plato's hypostatized abstractions.
He was the author of an 'Eirvro o' TWv HX aTcwos Soy s6TC.wv, an analysis of Plato's philosophy according to later writers.
"The Eleatic school," says the Stranger in Plato's Sophist, 242 D, "beginning with Xenophanes, and even earlier, starts from the principle of the unity of all things."
8, &c.; the very different representations in Plato's Protagoras and Theaetetus;, the fragments in Johannes Frei, Quaestiones Protagoreae (Bonn, 1845), and A.
R4 seq., intended to give an etymological interpretation of the name Yahweh," his etymology is any better than many other paronomastic explanations of proper names in the Old Testament, or than, say, the connexion of the name 'A7roXXcwv with airo?ovwv, 6.7roXuwv in Plato's Cratylus, or the popular derivation from eurOXXvµe.
They were written in pithy and popular language, full of proverbs and colloquialisms. Plato is said to have introduced them into Athens and to have made use of them in his dialogues; according to Suidas, they were Plato's constant companions, and he even slept with them under his pillow.
However, no proper geometrical solution, in Plato's sense, was obtained; in fact it is now generally agreed that, with such a restriction, the problem is insoluble.
Neither of these processes admitted of commercial application, but by a modification of Ruff and Plato's process, W.
1444); the Rhetoric by Filelfo (1430), and Plato's Republic by Decembrio (1439).
It is impossible to decide how far this legend is due to Plato's invention, and how far it is based on facts of which no record remains.
Thirdly, it can justly claim the honour of Plato's name, since it expressly goes back to him for its metaphysics, directly combating those of the Stoa.
At Athens in his second period for some twenty years he acquired the further advantage of balancing natural science by metaphysics and morals in the course of reading Plato's writings and of hearing Plato's unwritten dogmas (cf.
Aristotle, however, always revered Plato's memory (Nic. Ethics, i.
6), and even in criticizing his master counted himself enough of a Platonist to cite Plato's doctrines as what "we say" (cf.
Well grounded in his boyhood, and thoroughly educated in his manhood, Aristotle, after Plato's death, had the further advantage of travel in his third period, when he was in his prime.
The appointment of Plato's nephew, Speusippus, to succeed his uncle in the Academy induced Aristotle and Xenocrates to leave Athens together and repair to the court of Hermias.
The master and his scholars were called Peripatetics (ol Ert Tov 7reptlredrov), certainly from meeting, like other philosophical schools, in a walk (7repL7raros), and perhaps also, on the authority of Hermippus of Smyrna, from walking and talking there, like Protagora s s and his followers as described in Plato's Protagoras (314 E, 315 e).
Didactic writings: (1) Metaphysical: - rep: TayaBou: On the good (probably not a dialogue but a report of Plato's lectures).
Among the didactic writings, the 7rEpi TayaOoii would probably belong to the same time, because it was Aristotle's report of Plato's lectures.
On the whole, then, it seems as if Aristotle began with dialogues during his second period under Plato, but gradually came to prefer writing didactic works, especially in the third period after Plato's death, and in connexion with Alexander.
Plato's theory of the soul and its immortality was not the ordinary Greek view derived from Homer, who regarded the body as the self, the soul as a shade having a future state but an obscure existence, and stamped that view on the hearts of his countrymen, and affected Aristotle himself.
Nothing could be more like Plato's Phaedo, or more unlike Aristotle's later work on the Soul, which entirely rejects transmigration and allows the next life to sink into the background.
Finally, in the spirit of Plato's Phaedo and the dialogue Eudemus, the Protrepticus holds that the soul is bound to the sentient members of the body as prisoners in Etruria are bound face to face with corpses; whereas the later view of the De Anima is that the soul is the vital principle of the body and the body the necessary organ of the soul.
I seq.) strikingly exhibits the origin of Aristotle's divergence from Platonism, and that too in Plato's lifetime.
Accordingly in this dialogue he attacked Plato's fundamental position, both in its written and in its unwritten presentment, as a.
Plato's philosophy: so far was he, says Plutarch, from following it.
Thus early did Aristotle begin, even in Plato's lifetime, to oppose.
Plato's hypothesis of supernatural forms, and advance his own.
Containing his report of Plato's lectures on the Good, he was dealing: with the same mathematical metaphysics which in his dialogue on.
After Plato's death, coming to his third period he made a further departure from Platonism in his didactic works on politics and rhetoric, written in connexion with Alexander and Theodectes.
Further, in treating rhetoric as an art in the Theodectea he was forced into a conclusion, which carried him far beyond Plato's rigid notions of proof and of passion: he concluded that it is the work of an orator to use persuasion, and to arouse the passions (TO Tic 71 - 607 7 bcayeipaL), e.g.
KaT7 7 yopiaL: Categoriae: On simple expressions signifying different kinds of things and capable of predication [probably an early work of Aristotle, accepting species and genera as "secondary substances " in deference to Plato's teaching].
2.7rEpL `Epp7 7 vELas: De interpretatione: On language as expression of mind, and especially on the enunciation or assertion (Liirocbavacs h7roc/avTucos Xoyos) [rejected by Andronicus according to Alexander; but probably an early work of Aristotle, based on Plato's analysis of the sentence into noun and verb].
He was really, as we have seen, a prolific writer from the time when he was a young man under Plato's guidance at Athens; beginning with dialogues in the manner of his master, but afterwards preferring to write didactic works during the prime of his own life between thirty-eight and fifty (347-335-334), and with the further advantage of leisure at Atarneus and Mitylene, in Macedonia and at home in Stagira.
Turning to Aristotle's own works, we immediately light upon a surprise: Aristotle began his extant scientific works during Plato's lifetime.
Both books were commenced some years before Plato's death: both were works of many years: both were destined to form parts of the Aristotelian system of philosophy.