This cement mass is heightened at many places so as to make platforms and supports for huts.
Passengers and goods are generally in different and sometimes in distant positions, the place selected for each being that which is most convenient for the traffic. The passenger station abuts on the main line, or, at termini, forms the natural terminus, at a place as near as can conveniently be obtained to the centre of the population which constitutes the passenger traffic; and preferably its platforms should be at or near the ground level, for convenience of access.
In order to keep down the expense of shunting the empty trains and engines to and from the platforms the carriage and locomotive depots should be as near the passenger station as possible; but often the price of land renders it impracticable to locate them in the immediate vicinity and they are to be found at a distance of several miles.
Many large stations, however, are of a mixed type, and the offices are arranged in a fork between two or more series of platforms, or partly at the end and partly on one side.
When the railway lies below the surface level the bulk of the offices are often placed on a bridge spanning the lines, access being given to the platforms by staircases or lifts, and similarly when the railway is at a high level the offices may be arranged under the lines.
At stations on double-track railways which have a heavy traffic four tracks are sometimes provided, the two outside ones only having platforms, so that fast trains get a clear road and can pass slow ones that are standing in the station.
At the new Victoria station (London) of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway - which is so long that two trains can stand end to end at the platforms - this system is extended so as to permit a train to start out from the inner end of a platform even though another train is occupying the outer end.
The platforms on British railways have a standard elevation of 3 ft.
At intermediate stations the roofs are often carried on brackets fixed to the walls of the station buildings, and project only to the edge of the platforms. At larger stations where both the platforms and the tracks are covered in, there are two broad types of construction, with many intermediate variations: the roof may either be comparatively low, of the " ridge and furrow " pattern, borne on a number of rows of pillars, or it may consist of a single lofty span extending clear across the area from the side walls.
The advantage claimed for roofs formed with one or two large spans is that they permit the platforms and tracks to be readily rearranged at any time as required, whereas this is difficult with the other type, especially since the British Board of Trade requires the pillars to be not less than 6 ft.
Away from the edges of the platforms. On the other hand, wide spans are more expensive both in first cost and in maintenance, and there is the possibility of a failure such as caused the collapse in December 1905 of the roof of Charing Cross (S.E.R.) station, London, which then consisted of a single span.
At busy stations separate tracks are sometimes appropriated to the use of light engines and empty trains, on which they may be run between the platforms and the locomotive and Loco- carriage depots.
The object was to bring the level of the station platforms as close to the .
There are also remains of the town wall in the "polygonal" style, and above the town are several massive platforms for supporting buildings, in a more archaistic form of this style; these may well belong to the Roman period, and the latter even to the empire.
Self-acting tanks are occasionally built underneath the platforms of hoisting cages.
Although of no great thickness it covers six-sevenths of the island, rising in a series of steps or platforms to a height of nearly 1 10o ft.
Of one or more platforms connected by an open framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached.
The number of platforms or decks varies considerably; in small mines only a single one may be used, but in the larger modern pits two-, threeor even four-decked cages are used.
This great height is necessary to obtain head-room for the cages, the landing platforms being usually placed at some considerable height above the natural surface.
An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
The confession of faith issued by the London-Amsterdam church (the original of the Pilgrim Fathers' churches) in 1596 declares that the Christian congregation having power to elect its minister has also power to excommunicate him if the case so require (Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 66).
Considering, then, his other differences from Anabaptist theories, and the absence of any hint to the contrary in his own autobiographical references, " it is safe to affirm that he had no conscious indebtedness to the Anabaptists " (Williston Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congreg., New York, 1893, p. 16).
Important documents for Congregational Faith and Order, with historical introductions, are printed in Williston Walker's Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (New York, 1893).
Some of these had been prepared with interior parapets and platforms of concrete for medium guns.
Herodotus, writing also in the 5th century B.C., describes the people of Lake Prasias as living in houses constructed on platforms supported on piles in the middle of the lake, which are approached from the land by a single narrow bridge.
Similar researches have also established the fact that in prehistoric times nearly all the lakes of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining countries - in Savoy and the north of Italy, in Austria and Hungary and in Mecklenburg and Pomerania - were peopled, so to speak, by lake-dwelling communities, living in villages constructed on platforms supported by piles at varying distances from the shores.
The substructure which supported the platforms on which the dwellings were placed was most frequently of piles driven into the bottom of the lake.
On their level tops the beams supporting the platforms were laid and fastened by wooden pins, or inserted in mortices cut in the heads of the piles.
In some parts three distinct successions of inhabited platforms have been traced.
Here the larger houses had platforms in front of them forming terraces at different levels descending towards the river.
The broad platforms of the hamada are covered with Quaternary deposits.
The most remarkable of these are on Easter Island, where immense platforms built of dressed stone without mortar are found, together with stone images.
Remains of the monastic buildings are to be found in every direction in the shape of raised stone platforms, foundations and stone pillars.
Two lofty platforms along the Tigris front had served as foundations of the palaces hitherto built, but the platforms had been wrecked and the palaces were in decay.
He was active as a Republican in state and national politics; was chairman of the Committee on Resolutions of the New York State Republican Conventions from 1874 to 1880 (excepting 1877), and was president of the convention of 1879; and was a delegate to several National Republican Conventions, drafting much of the Republican platforms of 1876 and 1896.
In 1841 he abandoned the Whig party, with which he had previously been affiliated, and for seven years was the undisputed leader of the Liberty party in Ohio; he was remarkably skilful in drafting platforms and addresses, and it was he who prepared the national Liberty platform of 1843 and the Liberty address of 1845.
The propaganda agencies of all the nations, and especially of the Central Powers, had flooded the mails, used the lecture platforms and organized their semiofficial press.
Here are found immense platforms built of large cut stones fitted together without cement.
The walls on the seaside are, in some of the platforms, nearly 30 ft.
On the land side of the platforms there is a broad terrace with large stone pedestals upon which once stood colossal stone images carved somewhat into the shape of the human trunk.
On some of the platforms there are upwards of a dozen images, now thrown from their pedestals and lying in all directions.
In the atlas illustrating the voyage of La Perouse a plan of the island is given, with the position of several of the platforms. Two of the images are also represented in a plate.
(For the chief rivers see the separate articles on them, and also the section on the physical features in the article on the different shires of Scotland.) The topography of the country being the result of prolonged denudation, it is reasonable to infer that the oldest surfaces likely to be preserved are portions of some of the platforms of erosion successively established by the wearing down of the land to the sea-level.
Relics of these platforms occur both in the Highlands and among the Southern Uplands.
They almost invariably lie on strongly ice-worn platforms of rock, and are obviously hollows produced by the gouging action of the sheets of land-ice by which the general glaciation of the country was affected.
Most of the seaport towns stand upon platforms of raised beach.
The favourite mode of shooting the tiger is from the back of elephants, or from elevated platforms (machdns) of boughs in the jungle.
This the Repsolds have done in the Pulkovo telescope by means of two platforms, as shown in fig.
These platforms are capable of easy motion so that the astronomer may be conveniently situated for observing an object at any azimuth or altitude to which the telescope may be directed.
Per second or as slowly as the observer desires - whilst in all the large platforms we have seen (Potsdam and Paris), the rate of shift is tedious and time-consuming.
They construct platforms of boughs in the trees, which are used as sleeping-places, and apparently occupied for several nights in succession.
They sprinted across the floor and leaped up to the elevated platforms, poking their soft muzzles into the stanchions to gobble the grain.
The so-called Great Palace consists of a group of detached buildings, apparently ten in number, standing on two platforms of different elevations.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
From falling off platforms and being struck or run over by trains .
23 95 17 From falling, or being caught between trains and platforms, walls, &c..
From falling between trains and platforms 5 43 5 53 52 100331908.1907.
C. From falling off platforms upon the ballast .
The increased loading space required in the sheds is obtained by multiplying the number and the length of lines and platforms; sometimes also there are short sidings, cut into the platforms at right angles to the lines, in which wagons are placed by the aid of wagon turn-tables, and sometimes the wagons are dealt with on two floors, being raised or lowered bodily from the ground level by lifts.
End doors opening on end platforms have always been characteristic of American passenger equipment.
The third type is the intermediate one between those two, followed by the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways, in London, where the railway has an arched roof, built usually at a sufficient distance below the surface of the street to permit the other subsurface structures to lie in the ground above the crown of the arch, and where the station platforms are from 20 to 30 ft.