Presbyterianism in Ireland, in modern times at least, dates from the plantation of Ulster in the reign of James I.
In 1585 Lord Deputy Sir John Perrot undertook the shiring of Ulster (excluding the counties Antrim and Down, which had already taken shape); and his work, though of little immediate effect owing to the rising of Hugh O'Neill, served as a basis for the division of the territory at the plantation of Ulster in the reign of James I.
For their government the settlers adopted (1639) a plantation covenant.
Among the ancients it was in request for poles, rafters, joists, and for the construction of winepresses, tables and musical instruments; and on that account was so valuable that a plantation of cypresses was considered a sufficient dowry for a daughter.
- For the sources of the early history of Plymouth consult (George) Mourt's Relation, or Journal of the Plantation of Plymouth (Boston, 1865, and numerous other editions); William Bradford's History of the Plimouth Plantation (Boston, 1858, and several later editions), the most important source of information concerning Plymouth before 1646; the Plymouth Colony Records (12 vols., Boston, 1855-1861); the Records of the Town of Plymouth (3 vols., Plymouth, 1889-1903); J.
Probably the earliest large find was a 17-lb nugget on the Reed Plantation in Cabarrus county in 1799; in the same mine a 28-lb nugget, probably the largest found in eastern United States, was discovered in 1803.
Although greatly disappointed at the return of the first colony, Raleigh despatched another company, consisting of 121 persons under John White, with instructions to remove the plantation to the shore of Chesapeake Bay.
As a picturesque tree, for park and ornamental plantation, it is among the best of the conifers, its colour and form contrasting yet harmonizing with the olive green and rounded outline of oaks and beeches, or with the red trunk and glaucous foliage of the pine.
It was governed under a "plantation covenant" until the 4th of June 1639, when, at a general meeting, the "free planters" adopted the fundamental principles of a new government.
It is difficult to get the hands to work until the cotton is fully opened, and it is hard to induce them to pick over ioo lb a day, though some expert hands are found in every cotton plantation who can pick twice as much.
The settlement was first called "Boston Plantation," or "Poontoosuck," but in 1761, when it was incorporated as a township, the name was changed to Pittsfield, in honour of the elder William Pitt.
In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas.
That the plant was itself used also as the principal material in the construction of light skiffs suitable for the navigation of the pools and shallows of the Nile, and even of the river itself, is shown by sculptures of the fourth dynasty, in which men are represented building a boat with stems cut from a neighbouring plantation of papyrus (Lepsius, Denkm.
As a result some 60,000,000 mulberry trees were planted in Turkey during 1890-1910, involving the plantation of about 130,000 acres, and new magnaneries and spinning factories sprang up in every direction; while the revenue (silk tithe) increased in the regions administered by the council from £T17,000 in1881-1882to LT125,000 in 1906-1907, the value of the silk crop in those regions having thus advanced by over £Tr,000,000.
Rubber is known as " Plantation " rubber in contradistinction to the " wild " rubber.
" Plantation " Para rubber from Ceylon and the Malay States has brought prices equal to and often exceeding those of fine Para rubber from Brazil.
Para rubber from Brazil generally contains about 15% of water, whilst " plantation " Para is usually nearly dry and contains 1% of water or less.
The oldest of the plantation trees of Ceylon and Malaya are not much more than twelve years old, whilst it is to.
It is therefore to be expected that as time goes on the quality of " plantation " rubber will improve, and there would seem to be no reason why it should not eventually be fully equal to that of the " wild " rubber.
In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.
Each year should therefore show an increase in the production of plantation rubber.
I i.--Para Rubber Plantation, Ceylon.
Per lb was given for specially prepared " plantation Para."
Another disadvantage of uncovered soil in a plantation of young rubber trees is that the ground under the heat of a tropical sun rapidly loses its moisture.
Per acre in subsequent years until the sixth year, when the plantation would begin to be productive.
Plantation rubber comes into commerce in the form of the crinkled ribbons known as crepe, in sheets or biscuits, and sometimes in large blocks made by compressing the crepe rubber.
He receives both the wild rubber containing variable quantities of impurity and the purer plantation rubber, the latter, however, in much smaller amount.
This will operate to the advantage of plantation rubber and against the wild rubber, so long as the latter is not exported in a purer condition.
In the future this washing of " wild " rubber may be conducted in the tropics, thus furnishing the manufacturer with rubber which, like " plantation " rubber, need not be subjected to this process in the factory.
For the next few months he travelled to regain his health; and in the spring of 1836 returned to his cotton plantation, where for several years he devoted his time largely to reading political philosophy, political economy, public law and the English classics, and by careful management of his estate he acquired considerable wealth.
The buildings include the residence of the administrator, barracks, a government school for natives, a mosque and Hindu temple, and the establishment of the Mission du Sacre Caur, which possesses a large plantation of coco-nut palms. Bagamoyo is in telegraphic communication with Zanzibar and with the other coast towns of German East Africa, and has regular steamship communication with Zanzibar.
Of the city, where the Fort St Luis Place, a plantation 1 Murat settled here about 1821, became a naturalized American citizen, relinquishing his claim to the crown of Naples, and lived here for much of the time until his death, holding successively the office of alderman, mayor and postmaster of the city, and devoting some of his leisure to the preparation of three books, describing political and social conditions in America, the last of which, Exposition des principes du gouvernement republicain tel qu'il a ete perfectionne en Amerique (1838), was translated into many languages and was very popular in Europe.
The value of sugar-canes at a given plantation or central factory would at first sight appear to vary directly as the amount of saccharine contained in the juice expressed from them varies, Sugar-canes.
By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.
Of the Cambridge Modern History, and edited William Bradford's History of the Plimouth Plantation (1896) and the Correspondence of Susan Ferrier (1898)'.
By the colonial authorities Natick was considered as a " plantation " until the establishment of the church; in 1762 the parish (erected in 1745) became a district, and in 1781 this was incorporated as a town.
Edward Field (Editor), State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation at the end of the Century: A History (3 vols., Boston, 1902), is valuable for the more recent history of the state.
Mowry, The Dorr War; or the Constitutional Struggle in Rhode Island (Providence, 1901); Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, 1636-1792 (io vols., Providence, 1856-65); Rhode Island Historical Society, Collections (to vols., to be continued, Providence, 1827-1902); Proceedings and Publications, 23 numbers (Providence, 1872-1902, to be continued).
A settlement or " plantation " was sometimes incorporated first as a " district " and later as a town, the difference being that the latter had the right of corporate representation in the general court, while the former had no such right.
During the first winter nearly onehalf their number died from exposure, and the relations of the survivors with their partners of the London Company, who had insisted that for seven years the plantation should be managed as a joint stock company, were unsatisfactory.
Free-Soil Democrat1851-1853Whig1853-1854-1854-1855 Know-Nothing1855-1858Republican1858-18611 Endecott, by commission dated the 30th of April 1629, was made " governor of London's plantation in the Massachusetts Bay."
The colonial historical classics are William Bradford, History of Plimoth Plantation (pub.
In 1752 the plantation was incorporated as a "district," and under a general state law of 1775 gained the legal rights of a township. Palmer was a centre of disaffection in the time of the Shays Rebellion.
Ere long these were forced to seek refuge, in 1607 and 1608 respectively, at Amsterdam, whence the Scrooby ohurch moved to Leiden in 1609 (Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, chs.
In the meantime Chalmers applied himself with great diligence and assiduity to the investigation of the history and establishment of the English colonies in North America; and enjoying free access to the state papers and other documents preserved among what were then termed the plantation records, he became possessed of much important information.
Although Exeter, in 1639, Dover, in 1640, and Strawberry Banke, not later than 1640, adopted a plantation covenant, these settlements were especially weak from lack of a superior tribunal, and appeals had been made to Massachusetts as early as 1633.
Scaling of Notts estimated the entire cost of an osier plantation at £33, 12s.
It is certain, however, that in 1642, the year after Thomas Mayhew bought the island, his son, also named Thomas Mayhew (c. 1616-1657), and several other persons established a plantation on the site of what is now Edgartown village.
Under the system of slave labour which existed before 1860, the average size of the plantations tended to increase, but since 1860 the reverse has been true, the average plantation in 1860 being 346 acres, and in 1900 92.7 acres.
Kemble's Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839 (New York, 1863) should be compared with R.