Qualem in plantarum seminibus (fabis, puta, aut glandibus) gemmam sive apicem protuberantem cernimus, totius futurae arboris principium.
The great British herbaria the orders and genera of flowering plants are usually arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum; the species generally follow the arrangement.
Grisebach, Catalogus plantarum Cubensium (Leipzig, 1866), and F.
Sauvalle, Flora Cubana: revisio catalogi Grisebachiani (Havana, 1868); and Flora Cubana: enumeratio nova plantarum Cubensium (Havana, 1873); F.
PEACH, the name of a fruit tree which is included by Bentham and Hooker (Genera plantarum, i.
That it was very largely used in cookery is evidenced by many writers; thus Laurenbergius (Apparatus plantarum, 1632) makes the large assertion "In re familiari vix ullus est telluris habitatus angulus ubi non sit croci quotidiana usurpatio aspersi vel incocti cibis."
Pallas also edited and contributed to Neue nordische Beitrage zur physikal schen Erdand Volkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte, and Oekonomie (1781-1796), published Illustrationes plantarum imperfecte vel nondum cognitarum (Leipzig, 1803), and con tributed to Buffon's Natural History a paper on the formation of mountains.
He promulgated a system which may be considered as the dawn of the "natural system" of the present day (Ray, Methodus Plantarum, 1682).
The garden of the Royal Dublin Society at Glasnevin was opened about 1796; that of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1807; and that of Glasgow 1 Morison, Praeludia Botanica (1672); Plantarum Historia Universalis (1680).
His Genera Plantarum, begun in 1778, and finally published in 1789, was an important advance, and formed the basis of all natural classifications.
The Enchiridion and Genera Plantarum of S.
A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much used in Great Britain and in America, is that of Bentham and Hooker, whose Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) is a descriptive account of all the genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination.
Malpighi's complete work, Anatome Plantarum, appeared in 1675 and Grew's Anatomy of Plants in 1682.
He first published his views in 1736, and he thus writes - "Antheras et stigmata constituere sexum plantarum, a palmicolis, Millingtono, Grewio, Rayo, Camerario, Godofredo, Morlando, Vaillantio, Blairio, Jussievio, Bradleyo, Royeno, Logano, &c., detectum, descriptum, et pro infallibili assumptum; nec ullum, apertis oculis considerantem cujuscunque plantae fibres, latere potest."
In botany the custom followed by John Ray (1627-1705) in his Historia Plantarum and in other works was continued in 1760 by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
The plants gathered on his British tours had already been described in his Catalogus plantarum Angliae (1670), which work is the basis of all later English floras.
Immediately after his admission into the Royal Society he was induced by Bishop John Wilkins to translate his Real Character into Latin, and it seems he actually completed a translation, which, however, remained in manuscript; his Methodus plantarum nova was in fact undertaken as a part of Wilkins's great classificatory scheme.
Ray's first book, the Catalogue plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium (1660, followed by appendices in 1663 and 1685), was written in conjunction with his "amicissimus et individuus comes," John Nid.
The first two editions of the Catalogus plantarum Angliae (1670, 1677) were likewise arranged alphabetically; but in the Synopsis stirpium Britannicarum (1690, 1696, also re-edited by Dillenius, 1724, and by Hill, 1760) Ray applied the scheme of classification which he had by that time elaborated in the Methodus and the Historia plantarum.
The Methodus plantarum nova (1682) was largely based on the works of Caesalpinus and Jung, and still more on that of Robert Morison of Oxford.
The classification of the Methodus was extended and improved in the Historia plantarum, but was disfigured by a large class of Anomalae, to include forms that the other orders did not easily admit, and by the separation of the cereals from other grasses.
Work on the lines suggested by the Linnaean fragmenta was continued in France by Bernard de Jussieu and his nephew, Antoine Laurent, and the arrangement suggested by the latter in his Genera Plantarum secundum Ordines Naturales disposita (1789) is the first which can claim to be a natural system.
This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants.
- The reader will find in the following works details of the subject and references to the literature: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Bluthendiagramme (Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899) Engler, Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 3rd ed.
The absence of differentiation into root, stem and leaf which prevails among seaweeds, seems, for example, to have led Linnaeus to employ the term in the Genera Plantarum for a sub-class of Cryptogamia, the members of which presented this character in a greater or less degree.
The flora of the Quito basin has been well studied by various European botanists, more especially by Dr William Jameson (1796-1873) of the university of Quito, who began the preparation of a synopsis of the Ecuadorean flora in 1864-1865 (Synopsis plantarum Quitensium, 2 vols., Quito, 1865).
His other scientific works, Commentaries on Theophrastus' De causis plantarum and Aristotle's History of Animals, he left in a more or less unfinished state, and they were not printed until after.
Clusius (Rariorum plantarum hist.
119 (Leipzig, 1875); Bentham and Hooker, Genera plantarum, iii.
Another brother, Gotthilf Henry Ernest Muhlenberg (1753-1815), was a prominent Lutheran clergyman, and was pastor of a church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, from 1779 to his death; but he is best known as a botanist, and published Catalogus plantarum Americae septentrionalis (1813) and Descriptio uberior graminum et plantarum calamariarum Americae septentrionalis indignarum et circurum (1817).
General: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Engler and Prantl, Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1889 and 1897); Strasburger, Die Coniferen and Gnetaceen (Jena, 1872); Die Angiospermen and die Gymnospermen (Jena, 1879); Histologische Beitrdge, iv.