The city was founded by Pizarro in 1 539 and was known as Guamanga down to 1825.
In 1540 Pizarro sent Pedro de Valdivia to make a regular conquest and settlement of Chile.
Pizarro set out in September 1532, and made for Caxamarca, where the Inca was.
The priest retired, and Pizarro at once gave the signal for attack.
His plans were betrayed, and Pizarro at once brought him to trial.
Trujillo was founded in 1535, by Francisco Pizarro, who gave it the name of his native city in Spain.
FRANCISCO PIZARRO (c. 1471 or 1475-1541), discoverer and conqueror of Peru, was born at Trujillo in Estremadura, Spain, about 1471 (or 1475).
He was an illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro, who as colonel of infantry afterwards served in Italy under Gonsalvo de Cordova, and in Navarre, with some distinction.
The subsequent movements of Pizarro belong to the history of Peru (q.v.).
It was captured by Pizarro in 1533, and it is said that its size and the magnificence of its principal edifices filled the Spaniards with surprise.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
The Spaniards in the Gulf of Darien were left by Ojeda under the command of Francisco Pizarro, the future conqueror of Peru.
After suffering much from famine and disease, Pizarro resolved to leave, and embarked the survivors in small vessels, but outside the harbour they met a ship which proved to be that of Martin Fernandez Enciso, Ojeda's partner, coming with provisions and reinforcements.
In the year 1519 Panama was founded by Pedrarias; and the conquest of Peru by Pizarro followed a few years afterwards.
Of Spain, the church of San Antonio, a Franciscan monastery, a nunnery, and the remains of the palace of Atahualpa, the Inca ruler whom Pizarro treacherously captured and executed in this place in 1533.
Arequipa was founded by Pizarro in 1540, and has been the scene of many events of importance in the history of Peru.
It was founded in 15 3 7, two years after Pizarro had founded Lima.
PERU (apparently from Biru, a small river on the west coast of Colombia, where Pizarro landed), a republic of the Pacific coast of South America, extending in a general N.N.W.-S.S.E.
It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.
The expansion of the Inca rule and the formation of the Peruvian Empire was of modern growth at the time of the Spanish conquest, and dated from the victories of Pachacutic Inca who lived about a century before Huayna Capac, the Great Inca, whose death took place in 1526, the year before Pizarro first appeared on the coast.
Contract for the conquest of Peru was signed by Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque, Gaspar de Espinosa supplying the funds.
In 1527 Pizarro, after enduring fearful hardships, first reached the coast of Peru at Tumbez.
Pizarro sailed from San Lucar with his brothers in January 1530, and landed at Tumbes in 1531.
On the 15th of November 1532 Pizarro with his little army, made his way to Cajamarca, where he received a friendly welcome from the Inca, whom he treacherously seized and made prisoner.
The murder of the Inca Atahualpa was perpetrated on the 29th of August 1533, and on the 15th of November Pizarro entered Cuzco.
Almagro then undertook an expedition to Chile, and Pizarro founded the city of Lima on the 18th of January 1535.
Immediately afterwards a dispute arose between the brothers, Francisco, Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro and Almagro as to the limits of their respective jurisdictions.
Bitterly discontented, they conspired at Lima and assassinated Francisco Pizarro on the 26th of June 1541.
Meanwhile Vaca de Castro had been sent out as governor of Peru by Charles V., and on hearing of the murder of Pizarro he assumed the government of the country.
Gonzalo Pizarro rose in rebellion, and entered Lima on the 28th of October 1544.
He arrived in 1547, and on the 8th of April 1548 he routed the followers of Gonzalo Pizarro on the plain of Sacsahuaman near Cuzco.
Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquess of Canete, who became viceroy of Peru in 1655, bestowed on Fernandez the office of chronicler of Peru; and in this capacity he wrote a narrative of the insurrection of Francisco Hernandez Giron, of the rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro, and of the administration of Pedro de la Gasca.
Between 1524 and 1535 Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro had completed the conquest of Peru, which was followed, however, by a long period of strife among the Spaniards, and of rebellions.
The Napo and its tributaries are celebrated in the early history of South America as the route by which Gonzalo Pizarro and Oreliana first reached the Amazon, and it was afterwards the principal route by which the early expeditions across the continent at this point connected the Andean Plateau with the Amazon.
The fortunate monarch, however, had not long to enjoy his success; for Pizarro and his Spaniards were already at the door, and by 1533 the fate of the country was sealed.
It was founded by Pizarro in 1531 under the name of San Miguel, at a place called Tangarara, nearer Paita, but the present site was afterwards adopted.
Other towns of the department, with their estimated populations in 1906, are: Tumbes, or Tumbez (2300), the most northern port of Peru, on the Gulf of Guayaquil, celebrated as the place where Pizarro landed in 1531; Paita; Sechura (6450), on Sechura Bay in the southern part of the department, with exports of salt and sulphur; Sullana (5300), an inland town with railway connexions in the fertile Chira valley; Morropon (3800) on the upper Piura; Huancabamba, the centre of a tobacco district in the mountains; and Tambo Grande (6100) and Chulucanas (4600), both in the fertile Piura valley above the capital.
DIEGO DE ALMAGRO (1475-1538), Spanish commander, the companion and rival of Pizarro, was born at Aldea del Rey in 1475.
He was executed by order of Pizarro in 1538 in consequence of a dispute as to their respective territories.
5° S.), which was founded by Pizarro himself.
The first Spanish invasion of Chile took place in 1535, when Diego de Almagro, the companion and rival of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, marched into Chile in search of gold.
In 1528 he explored the coast of Guatemala and Yucatan, and in 1532 he led 300 volunteers to reinforce Pizarro in Peru.
On the 15th of November, Pizarro entered Caxamarca, and sent his brother and Ferdinando de Soto to request an interview with the Inca.
The conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes and of Peru by Francisco Spain and Pizarro (q.v.) belong to this reign, but were imme- the Eurodiately due to the adventurers in America.
A civil war broke out between the brothers, and, about the time when the Spanish conqueror Pizarro was beginning to move inland from the town of San Miguel, Huascar had been defeated and thrown into prison, and Atahualipa had become Inca.
Pizarro himself seized the Inca, and in endeavouring to preserve him alive, received, accidentally, on his hand the only wound inflicted that day on a Spaniard.
Atahuallpa, thus treacherously captured, offered an enormous sum of money as a ransom, and fulfilled his engagement; but Pizarro still detained him, until the Spaniards 'should have arrived in sufficient numbers to secure the country.
Pizarro, Almagro and Luque afterwards renewed their compact in a more solemn and explicit manner, agreeing to conquer and divide equally among themselves the opulent empire they hoped to reach.
Explorations were then undertaken down the west coast of South America, in which Pizarro, though left for months with but thirteen followers on a small island without ship or stores, persisted till he had coasted as far as about 9° S.
The governor of Panama showing little disposition to encourage the adventurers, Pizarro resolved to apply to the sovereign in person for help, and with this object sailed from Panama for Spain in the spring of 1528, reaching Seville in early summer.
Was won over, and on the 26th of July 1529 was executed at Toledo the famous capitulacion, by which Pizarro was upon certain conditions made governor and captain-general of the province of New Castile for the distance of 200 leagues along the newly discovered coast, and invested with all the authority and prerogatives of a viceroy, his associates being left in wholly secondary positions.
One of the conditions of the grant was that within six months Pizarro should raise a sufficiently equipped force of two hundred and fifty men, of whom one hundred might be drawn from the colonies; as he could not make up his due complement he sailed clandestinely from San Lucar in January 1J 3 o.
After the final effort of the Incas to recover Cuzco in 1 53 6 -37 had been defeated by Diego de Almagro, a dispute occurred between him and Pizarro respecting the limits of their jurisdiction.
This led to battle; Almagro was defeated (1538) and executed; but his supporters conspired, and assassinated Pizarro on the 26th of June 1541.
Mr. Higinbotham, President of the World's Fair, kindly gave me permission to touch the exhibits, and with an eagerness as insatiable as that with which Pizarro seized the treasures of Peru, I took in the glories of the Fair with my fingers.