The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
The Spaniards in the Gulf of Darien were left by Ojeda under the command of Francisco Pizarro, the future conqueror of Peru.
After suffering much from famine and disease, Pizarro resolved to leave, and embarked the survivors in small vessels, but outside the harbour they met a ship which proved to be that of Martin Fernandez Enciso, Ojeda's partner, coming with provisions and reinforcements.
In the year 1519 Panama was founded by Pedrarias; and the conquest of Peru by Pizarro followed a few years afterwards.
The city was founded by Pizarro in 1 539 and was known as Guamanga down to 1825.
Of Spain, the church of San Antonio, a Franciscan monastery, a nunnery, and the remains of the palace of Atahualpa, the Inca ruler whom Pizarro treacherously captured and executed in this place in 1533.
Arequipa was founded by Pizarro in 1540, and has been the scene of many events of importance in the history of Peru.
It was founded in 15 3 7, two years after Pizarro had founded Lima.
PERU (apparently from Biru, a small river on the west coast of Colombia, where Pizarro landed), a republic of the Pacific coast of South America, extending in a general N.N.W.-S.S.E.
It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.
The expansion of the Inca rule and the formation of the Peruvian Empire was of modern growth at the time of the Spanish conquest, and dated from the victories of Pachacutic Inca who lived about a century before Huayna Capac, the Great Inca, whose death took place in 1526, the year before Pizarro first appeared on the coast.
Contract for the conquest of Peru was signed by Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque, Gaspar de Espinosa supplying the funds.
In 1527 Pizarro, after enduring fearful hardships, first reached the coast of Peru at Tumbez.
Pizarro sailed from San Lucar with his brothers in January 1530, and landed at Tumbes in 1531.
On the 15th of November 1532 Pizarro with his little army, made his way to Cajamarca, where he received a friendly welcome from the Inca, whom he treacherously seized and made prisoner.
The murder of the Inca Atahualpa was perpetrated on the 29th of August 1533, and on the 15th of November Pizarro entered Cuzco.
Almagro then undertook an expedition to Chile, and Pizarro founded the city of Lima on the 18th of January 1535.
Immediately afterwards a dispute arose between the brothers, Francisco, Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro and Almagro as to the limits of their respective jurisdictions.
Bitterly discontented, they conspired at Lima and assassinated Francisco Pizarro on the 26th of June 1541.
Meanwhile Vaca de Castro had been sent out as governor of Peru by Charles V., and on hearing of the murder of Pizarro he assumed the government of the country.
Gonzalo Pizarro rose in rebellion, and entered Lima on the 28th of October 1544.
In 1540 Pizarro sent Pedro de Valdivia to make a regular conquest and settlement of Chile.
Pizarro set out in September 1532, and made for Caxamarca, where the Inca was.
The priest retired, and Pizarro at once gave the signal for attack.
His plans were betrayed, and Pizarro at once brought him to trial.
Mr. Higinbotham, President of the World's Fair, kindly gave me permission to touch the exhibits, and with an eagerness as insatiable as that with which Pizarro seized the treasures of Peru, I took in the glories of the Fair with my fingers.