In the Piura district.
For purposes of description the coast-region of Peru may be divided into five sections, beginning from the north: (1) the Piura region; (2) the Lambayeque and Trujillo section; (3) the Santa valleys; (4) the section from Lima to Nasca; (5) the Arequipa and Tacna section.
(1) The great desert-region of Piura extends for nearly 200 m.
From the Gulf of Guayaquil to the borders of the Morrope Valley, and is traversed by three rivers - the Tumbes, Chira and Piura, the two former receiving their waters from the inner Cordillera and breaking through the outer range.
The climate of Piura is modified by the lower latitude, and also by the vicinity of the forests of Guayaquil.
Next in importance is cotton, which is grown along the greater part of the Peruvian coast, but chiefly in the departments of Piura, Lima and Ica.
Tobacco is grown in the department of Piura, and in the montana departments of Loreto, Amazonas and Cajamarca.
Goats are raised in Piura and Lambayeque for their skins and fat, and swine-breeding for the production of lard has become important in some of the coast valleys immediately north of Lima.
Mules are bred in Piura and Apurimac, and are highly esteemed for mountain travel.
Iron ores are found in Piura, the Huaylas valley, Aya, and some other places, but the deposits have not been worked through lack of fuel.
Coal has been found in extensive beds near Piura, Salaverry, Chimbote, Huarmey and Pisco on the coast, and at Goillarisquisga, Huarochiri and other places in the interior.
Petroleum has been found at several points on the coast in the department of Piura, and near Lake Titicaca in the department of Puno.
The most productive of the Piura wells are at Talara and Zorritos, where refineries have been established.
There are large cigarette factories in Lima, and others in Arequipa, Callao, Piura and Trujillo.
The plaiting of Panama hats from the specially prepared fibre of the " toquilla " palm is a domestic industry among the Indians at Catacoas (Piura) and Eten (Lambayeque).
The republic is divided into four military districts with headquarters at Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos, and these into eleven circumscriptions.
PIURA, the northernmost maritime department of Peru, bounded north by the Gulf of Guayaquil, N.E.
The coastal zone is traversed by the Tumbes, Chira and Piura rivers, which have their sources in the melting snows of the higher Andes and flow westward across the desert to the coast.
The valleys of the Chira and Piura are irrigated and maintain large populations.
The capital is Piura (est.
Pop. 9100 in 1906), on the Piura river, about 35 m.
Other towns of the department, with their estimated populations in 1906, are: Tumbes, or Tumbez (2300), the most northern port of Peru, on the Gulf of Guayaquil, celebrated as the place where Pizarro landed in 1531; Paita; Sechura (6450), on Sechura Bay in the southern part of the department, with exports of salt and sulphur; Sullana (5300), an inland town with railway connexions in the fertile Chira valley; Morropon (3800) on the upper Piura; Huancabamba, the centre of a tobacco district in the mountains; and Tambo Grande (6100) and Chulucanas (4600), both in the fertile Piura valley above the capital.