SYNOD OF PISTOIA, a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci (1741-1810), bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
The bishops refused to allow a voice to any not of their own order, and in the end the decrees of Pistoia were supported by a minority of only three.
De' Ricci's own memoirs, Memorie di Scipione de' Ricci, vescovo di Prato e Pistoia, edited by Antonio Galli, were published at Florence in 2 vols.
The acts of the synod of Pistoia were published in Italian and Latin at Pavia in 1788.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
This pastoral was subsequently in 1786 annexed to the resolutions passed by the reforming synod of Pistoia, and was condemned with eighty-four other propositions by papal bull in 1794.
In 1222 Florence waged war successfully on Pisa, Lucca and Pistoia, and during the next few years against the Sienese with varying results; although the emperor supported the latter as Ghibellines, on his departure for Germany in 1235 they were forced to accept peace on onerous terms. During the interregnum (1241-1243) following on the death of Pope Gregory IX.
But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.
Between 1320 and 1323 he harried the Florentines and defeated them several times, captured Pistoia, devastated their territory up to the walls of the city in spite of assistance from Naples under Raymundo de Cardona and the duke of Calabria (King Robert's son); never before had Florence been so humiliated, but while Castruccio was preparing to attack Florence he died in 1328.
Ferruccio, who had recaptured Volterra, marched to Gavinana above Pistoia to attack the Imperialists in the rear.
Summoning Siena, Pistoia and the Florentine exiles to their aid, they boldly faced their foe, but were defeated in 1254.
Duke of Puglia duke of Spoleto prince of Udine duke of Pistoia Margherita duke of Bergamo (b.
It is also the starting-point of a once important road over the Apennines to Pistoia by the Abetone Pass.
PISTOIA, or Pistoja (anc. Pistoriae), a town and episcopal see of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, from which it is 21 m.
During the middle ages Pistoia was at times a dangerous enemy to Florence, and the scene of constant conflicts between the Guelphs and Ghibellines; it was there that the great party struggle took place which resulted in the creation of the Bianchi and Neri factions (see Dante, Inferno, xxiv.
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
In the 14th century Pistoia possessed a number of the most skilful artists in silver-work, a wonderful specimen of whose powers exists now in the cathedral - the great silver altar and frontal of St James, originally made for the high altar, but now placed in a chapel on the south side.
Besides the silver altar it contains many fine works of sculpture; the chief are the monument of Cino da Pistoia, lawyer and poet, Dante's contemporary (1337), by Cellino di Nese, surrounded by his scholars, and Verrocchio's finest work in marble, the monument to Cardinal Forteguerra (1474), with a large figure of Christ, surrounded by angels, in high relief.
In addition to its fine churches, Pistoia contains many noble palaces and public buildings.
The industries of Pistoia include iron and steel works, especially manufactures of glass, silk, macaroni, woollens, olive oil, ropes, paper, vehicles and fire-arms. The word "pistol" is derived (apparently through pistolese, a dagger - dagger and pistol being both small arms) from Pistoia, where that weapon was largely manufactured in the middle ages.
In 1716 two Jesuits, P. Ipolito Desideri, of Pistoia, and P. Freyre, a Portuguese, reached Lhasa by way of Kashmir, Ladak, and the enormous journey from Ladak by the holy lakes and the valley of the Tsangpo.
- Silver Repousse Reliefs from the Pistoia Retable.
The silver altar and retable of Pistoia Cathedral (see fig.
His plans, which made a great stir at the time, were outlined at a synod held at Pistoia in 1786 (see Pistoia, Synod Of).
The magnificent frontals of Pistoia cathedral and the Florence baptistery are notable instances of this.
Several works of sculpture, including a bas-relief at Pistoia and a small terra-cotta model of a St John at the Victoria and Albert Museum, have also been claimed, but without general consent, as the young master's handiwork.
The formulation of this objection by the synod of Pistoia,' in 1786, however, only provoked a clearer explanation of the doctrine, which contributed to confirm the cult.