Pisco Bay contains San Gallan Island, high, with a bold cliff outline, 22 m.
An attempt was made in 184 B.C. to get round it by an embankment thrown out into the sea: but it was probably not until early in the imperial period that a cutting in the rocks at the foot of the promontory (Pisco Montano) finally solved the problem.
(4) The next coast-section extends for over 300 m., from Chancay to Nasca, and includes the rivers of Chancay or Lacha, of Carabayllo, Rimac, Lurin, Mala, Canete, Chincha, Pisco or Chunchanga, Ica and Rio Grande.
South of the entrance to Pisco Bay is Zarate Island, and farther south the white level islet of Santa Rosa.
Callao (q.v.) is a noteworthy exception, and Paita and Pisco are something more than the average coast village.
Paita, Eten, Pacasmayo, Salaverry, Callao, Pisco, Mollendo and Ilo, five of which are ports of call for foreign coasting steamers.
Coal has been found in extensive beds near Piura, Salaverry, Chimbote, Huarmey and Pisco on the coast, and at Goillarisquisga, Huarochiri and other places in the interior.
The sources of the first - the Rioblanco, Pisco and Puntal - are to be found on the northern slopes of the transverse ridge which culminates in the Imbabura volcano.