On the ist of October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, and when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans Julius II.
The Pisans took up the challenge, and Musat was driven out of Cagliari with the help of the Genoese in 1022 for the third time.
The Pisans and Genoese now disputed about the ownership of Sardinia, but the pope and the emperor decided in favour of Pisa.
After this the Pisan supremacy of the island seems to have become more of a reality, but Arborea remained independent, and after the defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at the naval battle of Meloria in 1284 they were obliged to surrender Sassari and Logudoro to Genoa.
Invested James II., the king of Aragon, with Sardinia; but it was not until 1323 that he attempted its conquest, nor until 1326 that the Pisans were finally driven out of Cagliari, which they had fortified in 1305-1307 by the construction of the Torre di S.
Employed the Pisans in 980 against the Greeks in Lower Italy, and the Pisans and Genoese together attacked the Saracens of Sardinia in 1017.
Their fleet was attacked at Meloria by the Pisans, and utterly defeated.
Thus bettered the position of the church in Italy, the Guelph party grew stronger than ever, through the crushing defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at Meloria in 1284.
Pancrazio (N.), both erected by the Pisans, the former in 1307, the latter in 1305.
Is the cathedral, built in 1257-1312 by the Pisans, and retaining two of the original transept doors.
In the 12th century Musatto, a Saracen, established himself in Cagliari, but was driven out with the help of the Pisans and Genoese.
The Pisans soon acquired the sovereignty over the whole island with the exception of Arborea, which continued to be independent.
Invested the kings of Aragon with Sardinia, and in 1326 they finally drove the Pisans out of Cagliari, and made it the seat of their government.
In 1148, and was captured by Ramon Berenguer IV., count of Barcelona, assisted by Templars, Pisans and Genoese.
The Pisans conquered Sardinia at the instigation of Benedict VIII.
Irritated by the concessions made by Alexius to the Pisans in II II, and furious at the revocation of her own privileges by John Comnenus in 1118, the republic naturally sought a new outlet in the Holy Land.
In 1135 and 1137 it was taken by the Pisans, and rapidly declined in importance, though its maritime code, known as the Tavole Amalfitane, was recognized in the Mediterranean until 1570.
War against the Pisans, who had been defeated by the Genoese in the naval battle of La Meloria in 1284, was carried on in a desultory fashion, and in i 293 peace was Campal= made.
The Pisans, fearing the vengeance of the Guelphs now that Henry was dead, had accepted the lordship of Uguccione della Fagginola, imperial vicar in Genoa.
At the same time League Charles violated his promise by giving aid to the Pisans against in their revolt against Florence, and did not restore the Charles other fortresses.
Had died, eliminating two dangers to the republic. Spain, who was at war with France over the partition of Naples, helped the Pisans as the enemies of Florence, France's ally (1501-1504), but when the war was over the Florentines were able to lay siege to Pisa (1507), and in 1509 the city was driven by famine to surrender and became a dependency of Florence once more.
But the Pisans repulsed them and assumed the offensive in Calabria, Sicily, and even in Africa.
Meanwhile the Pisans flourished more and more, and continued hostilities against the Saracens.
In 1099 the Pisans joined in the second crusade, proved their valour at the capture of Jerusalem, and derived many commercial advantages from it; for within a short time they had banks, consuls, warehouses and privileges of all kinds in every Eastern port.
Accordingly, to gratify the pope and the emperor Lothair II., the Pisans entered the Neapolitan territory to combat the Normans.
It has been said that the copy of the Pandects then taken by the Pisans from Amalfi was the first known to them, but in fact they were already acquainted with those laws.
Even after the retaking of Jerusalem by the Moslems (1187) the Pisans and Genoese again met in conflict in the East, and performed many deeds of valour.
The greatness and wealth of the Pisans at this period of their history is proved by the erection of the noble buildings by which their city is adorned.
The founda 1 It must be remembered that the Pisans and Florentines dated the beginning of the year ab incarnatione, i.e.
But the Florentines dated it from the 25th following and the Pisans from the 25th of March preceding the commencement of the common year.
In 1228 the Pisans met and defeated the united forces of Florence and Lucca near Barga in the Garfagnana, and at the same time they despatched fifty-two galleys to assist Frederick II.
The judges who governed the island were always at strife, and, as some of them applied to Pisa and some to Genoa for assistance against one another, the Italian seas were once more stained with blood, and the war burst out again and again, down to 1259, when it terminated in the decisive victory of the Pisans and the consolidation of their supremacy in Sardinia.
Nevertheless, the Pisans were undaunted.
The pope hurled an edict against the Pisans and tried to deprive them of Sardinia, while their merchants were driven from Sicily by the Angevins.
In 1276 the Pisans were compelled to agree to very grievous terms - to exempt Florentine merchandise from all harbour dues, to yield certain strongholds to Lucca, and to permit the return of Count Ugolino, whose houses they had burnt, and whose lands they had confiscated.
Gladdened the hearts of the Pisans, but his sudden death in 1313 again overthrew their hopes.
As a Ghibelline chief of valour and renown he was able to restore the military prestige of the Pisans, who under his command captured Lucca and defeated the Florentines at Montecatini on the 29th of August 1315.
New lords, or petty tyrants, rose to power in turn during this period of civil discord, but the military valour of the Pisans was not yet extinguished By sea they were almost impotent - Corsica and Sardinia were lost to them for ever; but they were still formidable by land.
But even during this century of disaster the Pisans continued to cherish not only commerce, but also the fine arts.
Made his descent into Italy in 1494, and came to Sarzana on his way to Tuscany, he was welcomed by the Pisans with the greatest demonstrations of joy.
When the Genoese appeared off Meloria the Pisans were lying in the river Arno at the mouth of which lay Porto Pisano the port of the city.
The second line of twenty galleys, under the command of Benedetto Giacaria (or Zaccharie), was placed so far behind the first that the Pisans could not see whether it was made up of war-vessels or of small craft meant to act as tenders to the others.
The Pisans, commanded by the Podesta Morosini and his lieutenants Ugolino della Gherardescha and Andreotto Saraceno, came out in a single body.
It is said that while the archbishop was blessing the fleet the silver cross of his archiepiscopal staff fell off, but that the omen was disregarded by .the irreverence of the Pisans, who declared that if they had the wind they could do without divine help. They advanced in line abreast to meet the first line of the Genoese, fighting according to the medieval custom to ram and board.
The former citadel (now gaol), built by the Pisans, was demolished and re-erected by Lorenzo de' Medici.
In the 13th century the Pisans tried to attract a population to the spot, but it was not till the 14th that Leghorn became a rival of Porto Pisano at the mouth of the Arno, which it was destined ultimately to supplant.
The second period includes the Genoese crusading exploits in the East, and extends to their victory over the Pisans (c. 1130), while the third reaches down to the days of the author's archbishopric. The sixth part deals with the constitution of the city, the seventh and eighth with the duties of rulers and citizens, the ninth with those of domestic life.
No wonder if these conquests generated in the minds of the Venetians and the Pisans fresh jealousy against Genoa, and provoked fresh wars; but the struggle between Genoa and Pisa was brought to a disastrous conclusion for the latter state by the battle of Meloria in 1284.
Active commerce was maintained with the Venetians, the Pisans, the Genoese, the Marseillais and the Catalans, who imported the produce of their looms, glass-wares, tin-wares, and iron, and received in return ivory, ostrich feathers, gold-dust, tanned hides, grain and negro slaves.
It was the seat of the giudici of Gallura, sent here by the Pisans in the rith century (but probably the native giudici resided at Tempio), and of an episcopal see, united in 1506 with that of Ampurias.