(attributed, but probably wrongly, to Giovanni Pisano by Vasari), and in its east front a Gothic window with stained glass by Fra Bartolommeo of Perugia (1441).
The arsenal, which was famous in Dante's day, received its first enlargement in 1304, when, on the design of Andrea Pisano, new building sheds and the rope walk or Tana were erected.
The splendid west front, of tricuspidal form, enriched with a multitude of columns, statues and inlaid marbles, is said to have been begun by Giovanni Pisano, but really dates from after 1370; it was finished in 1380, and closely resembles that of Orvieto, which is earlier in date (begun in 1310).
Conspicuous among the art treasures of the interior is the well-known octagonal pulpit by Niccola Pisano, dating from 1266-1268.
Amongst the secular buildings may be mentioned the royal palace; the archiepiscopal palace; the palace of the order of St Stephen, built by Niccola Pisano and reconstructed by Vasari; the Upezzinghi (formerly Lanfreducci) palace, built of Carrara marble in 1590; the Lanfranchi, Agostini and other palaces; the university (1472); a large hospital (1258); and fine market halls.
The building, erected in the Italian Gothic style between 1278 and 1283, by Giovanni Pisano, is of special interest chiefly for its famous frescoes.
In the year 1278 they had entrusted the erection of their fine Campo Santo to Niccola and Giovanni Pisano, by whom the architectural part of it was completed towards the end of the century.
The most famous of the Paduan churches is the basilica dedicated to Saint Anthony, commonly called Il Santo; the bones of the saint rest in a chapel richly ornamented with carved marbles, the work of various artists, among them of Sansovino and Falconetto; the basilica was begun about the year 1230 and completed in the following century; tradition says that the building was designed by Niccola Pisano; it is covered by seven cupolas, two of them pyramidal.
Pisanello or Vittore Pisano, a charming painter and the greatest medallist of Italy, was probably a pupil of Altichiero.
When the Genoese appeared off Meloria the Pisans were lying in the river Arno at the mouth of which lay Porto Pisano the port of the city.
Two years later Genoa took Porto Pisano, and filled up the harbour.
Giusto, &c. The cathedral, consecrated in 1120 (?), but enlarged and adorned by Niccolo Pisano (?) in 1254, has a fine pulpit of that period, and on the high altar are sculptures by Mino da Fiesole; it contains several good pictures - the best is an "Annunciation" by Luca Signorelli.
The cathedral of St Stephen was begun in the 12th century in the Tuscan Romanesque style; to this period belongs the narrow nave with its wide arches; the raised transepts and the chapels were added by Giovanni Pisano in 1317-1320; the campanile dates from 1340 (it is a much smaller and less elaborate version of Giotto's campanile at Florence), while the façade, also of alternate white sandstone and green serpentine, belongs to 1413.
The Chapel of the Girdle has good frescoes by Agnoio Gaddi (1365), a statue of the Virgin by Giovanni Pisano, and a handsome bronze open-work screen.
In the 13th century the Pisans tried to attract a population to the spot, but it was not till the 14th that Leghorn became a rival of Porto Pisano at the mouth of the Arno, which it was destined ultimately to supplant.
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
It numbers among its chambers the Gothic hall of Giovanni Pisano in which Celestine V.
The cathedral of St Januarius, occupying the site of temples of Apollo and Neptune, and still containing some of their original granite columns, was designed by Nicola Pisano, and erected between 1272 and 1316.
Some statuettes and sculptured slabs partly belonging to its pulpit, perhaps the work of Andrea Pisano, have been found; upon the reverse side of two of the slabs are still older reliefs of the 8th or 9th century; so that the slabs perhaps originally came from Tharros.
At about the same time Niccola Pisano (d.
During the 13th and 14th centuries in Italy the widespread influence of Niccola Pisano and his school encouraged the sculptor to use marble rather than bronze for his work.