3 The Pisan workings are only distinguished from the Roman by the character of the small objects (lamps, coins, &c.) found in them.
Judices Pisan period.
These names, indeed, continue even after the Pisan family of Lacon-Massa had by marriage succeeded to the judicature.
After this the Pisan supremacy of the island seems to have become more of a reality, but Arborea remained independent, and after the defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at the naval battle of Meloria in 1284 they were obliged to surrender Sassari and Logudoro to Genoa.
To the Pisan period belong a number of fine Romanesque churches, among which may be specially mentioned those of Ardara, S.
Bagno a Corsena is first mentioned in 1284 by Guidone de Corvaia, a Pisan historian (Muratori, R.I.S.
The four wall-surfaces that flank the three western doorways are decorated with very beautiful sculpture in relief, once ornamented with colour, the designs for which, according to Burckhardt, must be ascribed to the architect of the whole, though executed by other (but still Sienese, not Pisan) hands.
Saturnino, a domed church of the 8th century with a choir of the Pisan period.
In the r3th century Pisan merchants founded there a colony, Portus Pisanus, which, however, soon disappeared during the migrations of the Mongols and Turks.
The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the socalled " Pisan chart," which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists.
After Charles's victory over Conradin in 1268 the Florentines defeated the Sienese (1269) and made frequent raids into Pisan territory.
Except in connexion with the Pisan question the republic had taken no definite side in the great schism which had divided The the church since 1378, but in 1408 she appealed both council to Pope Gregory XII.
In the meanwhile the Pisan war dragged on without much headway being made.
The pillars which support the nave are of marble from Elba and Giglio; those of the side aisles are the spoils of ancient Greek and Roman buildings brought by the Pisan galleys.
And even during the first years of the harsh Lombard rule the need recognized by these oppressors of defending the Italian coast from the attacks of the Byzantines was favourable to the development of the Pisan navy.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
The Pisan fleet of three hundred sail, commanded by the archbishop Pietro Moriconi, attacked the Balearic Isles, where as many as 20,000 Christians were said to be held captive by the Moslems, and returned loaded with spoil and with a multitude of Christian and Moslem prisoners.
A papal edict awarding the supremacy of Corsica to the Pisan church proved sufficient cause for the war, which went on from 1118 to 1132.
And all three magnificent structures were mainly the work of Pisan artists, who gave new life.
Owing to the political and commercial interests binding Florence to the Roman court, the Guelph element naturally prevailed there, while the growth of its trade and commerce necessarily compelled that state to encroach on waters subject to Pisan rule.
Here seventy-two Pisan galleys engaged eightyeight Genoese, and half the Pisan fleet was destroyed.
The Florentines were now allied with Lucca and Genoa, and a few of their vessels succeeded in forcing an entry into the Pisan port, blocked it with sunken boats, and seized its towers.
They likewise received a ransom of 160,000 lire for their Pisan prisoners.
By this means they were enabled to capture the island of Giglio, and, attacking the Pisan harbour, carried off its chains, bore them in triumph to Florence, and suspended them in front of the baptistery, where they remained until 1848.
In 1472 Lorenzo the Magnificent tried to restore the ancient renown of the Pisan university.
In Naples, in Palermo, in all parts of Italy, Switzerland and the south of France, we still find the names of Pisan families who quitted their beloved home at that time.
The Pisan fleet represented the whole power of the city, and carried members of every family of mark and most of the great officers of state.
1328), whose tomb by the Pisan Giovanni di Balducci is in S.
It is superior in execution to the Pisan one.
Giovanni Fuorcivitus (so called because it was outside the line of the earliest, pentagonal, enceinte of the middle ages), with one of the long sides elaborately adorned with small arcades in the Pisan style, in black and white marble, also with sculpture by Gruamons (1162) on the facade.
Since whole universities and numerous scholars had pronounced in favour of the new theories, the Pisan synod dismissed all canonical scruples, and unhesitatingly laid claim to authority over both popes, one of whom was necessarily the legitimate pope.
Vi., 1838); Christine de Pisan, Le Livre des fais et bonnes me urs du sage roy Charles V, written in 1404, ed.
The hill occupied by the Pisan fortifications and the medieval town within them must have been the acropolis of the Carthaginian settlement; it is impossible to suppose that a citadel presenting such natural advantages was not occupied.
At the Marchese's request he wrote, in 1588, a treatise on the centre of gravity in solids, which obtained for him, together with the title of "the Archimedes of his time," the honourable though not lucrative post of mathematical lecturer at the Pisan university.
In 1062 the Pisan fleet broke through the chain of the harbour and carried off much spoil, which was spent on the building of the great church of Pisa.
To this succeeded the Moral Proverbs of Christine de Pisan, in verse, in 1478, and a Cordial, in prose, in 1479.
Giusta, with a beautiful Romanesque church of the Pisan period dedicated to this saint (D.
The water supply is maintained by an aqueduct built in1823-1832with 459 arches, from the Pisan mountains.
Of these the Pisan agent at Constantinople bore the title of consul, the Venetian that of baylo.
CHRISTINE DE PISAN (1364 - c. 1430), French poet, of Italian birth, was born at Venice in 1364.
His first care was to re-establish Venetian authority over the Dalmatians who had rebelled with the king of Hungary's protection, but he failed to capture Zara, owing to the arrival of the Pisan fleet, and although the latter was defeated by the Venetians, the undertaking was suspended.
The earlier churches of Genoa show a mixture of French Romanesque and the Pisan style - they are mostly basilicas with transepts, and as a rule a small dome; the pillars are sometimes ancient columns, and sometimes formed of alternate layers of black and white marble.