He lectured at Padua, Naples, Rome and Pisa, and won so high a reputation that he was deputed by Leo X.
Received the cardinal archbishop of Bordeaux and determined to support the cardinals at Pisa against both popes.
His grandfather, Gregorio Brunacci, of an ancient family of Pisa, had changed his name in order to become heir to a certain marchese di Consalvi.
From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa under Filippo Decio and Bartolomeo Sozzini.
In the continual struggles between Pisa and Genoa some of these princes took the side of the latter.
Musat returned to the island once more and made himself master of it, but was defeated and taken prisoner under the walls of Cagliari in 1050, when the dominion of Pisa was established.
He soon took the field, but after his failure to capture Padua the league broke up; and his sole ally, the French king, joined him in calling a general council at Pisa to discuss the question of Church reform.
Viani, Memorie della famiglia Cybo (Pisa, 1808); F.
He studied law, first at Bologna and later at Pisa, and after graduating in utroque jure, practised as a lawyer in Naples.
Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 71 m.
West of Pisa, after a total course of 155 m.
The distance from Pisa to the mouth in the time of Strabo was only 22 m.
The Serchio (anc. Auser), which joined the Arno at Pisa in ancient times, now flows into the sea independently.
From the 11th to the 14th century it belonged to Pisa, and in 1399 came under the dukes of Piombino.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
There are 21 universitiesBologna, Cagliari, Camerino, Catania, Ferrara,Genoa,Macerata, Messina, Modena, Naples, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Pisa, Rome, Sassari, Siena, Turin, Urbino, of which Camerino, Ferrara, Perugia and Urbino are not state institutions; university courses are also given at Aquila, Ban and Catanzaro.
Pisa Leghorn, Pescia, Pontremoli, Volterra.
Along the west coast the Via Aurelia ran up to Pisa and was continued by another Via Aemiia to Genoa.
Not to mention Venice, which has not yet entered the Italian community, and remains a Greek free city, Genoa and Pisa were rapidly rising into ill-defined autonomy.
Pisa built her Duomo.
Is the real meaning of the legend that Pisa, glorious through her consuls, brought the pandects in a single codex from Amalfi.
From the Tuscan league Pisa, consistently Ghibelline, stood aloof.
Pisa, who had ruined Amalfi, was now ruined by Genoa.
Pisa and Perugia were threatened with extinction, and Florence dreaded the advance of the Visconti arms, when the plague suddenly cut short his career of treachery and conquest in the year 1402.
During their season of ascendancy Pisa was enslaved, and Florence gained the access to the sea.
He crossed the Alps in 1495, passed through Lombardy, entered Tuscany, freed Pisa from the yoke of Florence, witnessed the expulsion of the Medici, marched to Naples and was crowned tliereall this without striking a blow.
Of Pisa by rail, 7 ft.
It was not till after the cardinals of the two colleges had led to the convocation of the general council of Pisa that Pierre d'Ailly renounced the support of Benedict XIII., and, for want of a better policy, again allied himself with the cause which he had championed in his youth.
This was, in fact, the procedure of the council of Pisa, in which Pierre d'Ailly took part.
Convinced as he was of the necessity for union and reform, he contributed more than any one to the adoption of the principle that, since the schism had survived the council of Pisa, it was necessary again to take up the work for a fundamental union, without considering the rights of John XXIII.
Gregory had promised not to create any more cardinals, and when he did so, in 1408, his former cardinals deserted him and, together with the Avignon cardinals, convoked the council of Pisa, which, despite its irregularity, proclaimed in June 1409 the deposition of both popes and the election of Alexander V.
A brave general Uguccione and an ambitious man, he captured Lucca and defeated the Florentines and their allies from Naples at Montecatini in 1315, but the following year he lost both Pisa and Lucca and had to fly from Tuscany.
He increased his bodyguard to Boo men, all Frenchmen, who behaved with the greatest licence and brutality; by his oppressive taxes, and his ferocious cruelty towards all who opposed him, and the unsatisfactory treaties he concluded with Pisa, he accumulated bitter hatred against his rule.
Although in 1472 some of the faculties and several of the professors were transferred to Pisa, it still retained importance, and in the 17th and 18th centuries it originated a number of learned academies.
In 1222 Florence waged war successfully on Pisa, Lucca and Pistoia, and during the next few years against the Sienese with varying results; although the emperor supported the latter as Ghibellines, on his departure for Germany in 1235 they were forced to accept peace on onerous terms. During the interregnum (1241-1243) following on the death of Pope Gregory IX.
But, although greatly strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its hostility to Florence.
The republic now turned to the task of breaking the power of the Ghibelline cities of Pisa and Arezzo.
The change in the government of the church, the rival council of Pisa, the ecclesiastical and political dissensions within and without the council, and the lack of disinterestedness on the part of its members, all combined to frustrate the hopes which its convocation had awakened.
The first successful attempt to revive the study of algebra in Christendom was due to Leonardo of Pisa, an Italian merchant trading in the Mediterranean.
He endeavoured to attract to his court the best scholars of Britain and Ireland, and by imperial decree (787) commanded the establishment of schools in connexion with every abbey in his realms. Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York were his advisers, and under their care the opposition long supposed to exist between godliness and secular learning speedily disappeared.
In consequence of the decisions of the council of Pisa, Florence and Siena had declared against Gregory XII.
In the Campo Santo of Pisa; Agostino and Agnolo, who in 1330 carved the fine tomb of Bishop Guido Tarlati in the cathedral of Arezzo; Lando di Pietro (14th century), architect, entrusted by the Sienese commune with the proposed enlargement of the cathedral (1339), and perhaps author of the famous Gothic reliquary containing the head of S Galgano in the Chiesa del Santuccio, which, however, is more usually attributed to Ugolino di Vieri, author of the tabernacle in the cathedral at Orvieto; Giacopo (or Jacopo) della Quercia, whose lovely fountain, the Fonte Gaia, in the Piazza del Campo has been recently restored; Lorenzo di Pietro (Il Vecchietta), a pupil of Della Quercia and an excellent artist in marble and bronze; Francesco d'Antonio, a skilful goldsmith of the 1 6th century; Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1502), painter, sculptor, military engineer and writer on art; Giacomo Cozzarelli (15th century); and Lorenzo Mariano, surnamed 11 Marrina (16th century).