Discharge-pipes arranged in parallel lines.
Some people dug trenches while others placed pipes in the trenches and covered them again with dirt.
Of water-pipes, and supply the London market throughout the winter.
In many gardens open-air tanks have been fitted up with hot-water pipes running through them to keep the water sufficiently warm in severe weather.
From the brain these spirits are conveyed through the body by means of the nerves, regarded by Descartes as tubular vessels, resembling the pipes conveying the water of a spring to act upon the mechanical appliances in an artificial fountain.
But a positive identity of pitch cannot be claimed for any period of time, and certainly not for the early organs; the foot-rule of the organ-builder, which had to do with the lengths of the pipes, and which varied in every country and province, could easily cause a difference of a semitone.
Dr Ellis had pipes (now preserved in the Royal Institution, London) made to reproduce both these pitches at 31 in.
Smith, of Cambridge, in 1759, had the organ of Trinity College, built by Bernhardt Schmidt, lowered a whole tone, to reduce it to certain Roman pitch pipes made about 1720.
Heating may be effected by one of the following systems, or installations may be so arranged as to combine the advantages of more than one method: open fires, closed stoves, hot-air apparatus, hot water circulating in pipes at low or at high pressure, or steam at high or low pressure.
The fixing of stoves of this kind entails the laying of pipes or ducts from the open to convey fresh air to the back of the stove.
All these methods warm chiefly by means of convected heat, the amount of true radiation from the pipes being small.
Branches may be made from the main pipes by means of smaller pipes arranged in the same manner as the mains, the Bolter branch flow pipe being connected with the main flow pipe and returning into the main return.
To obtain a larger heating surface than a pipe affords, radiators are connected with the pipes where desired, and the water passing through them warms the surrounding air.
Owing to the very rapid movement and the consequent increased rate of transmission of heat, the pipes and radiators may be reduced in size, in many circumstances a very desirable thing to achieve.
6) has many advantages, for it is safe, the boiler is small High and is easily managed, the temperature is well under control and may be regulated to suit the changing weather, and the small pipes present a neat appearance in a room.
The smallness of the pipes renders it liable to damage by frost, but this accident may be prevented by always keeping in frosty weather a small fire in the furnace.
The heat of the pipes is great, but can be easily regulated.
The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.
A drawback to the use of steam is the fact that the high temperature of the pipes and radiators attracts and spreads a great deal of dust.
There is also a risk that woodwork near the pipes may warp and split.
The joint most commonly used for hot-water pipes is termed the " rust " joint, which is cheap to make, but unfortunately is inefficient.
With wrought iron pipes bends may be arranged, as shown in fig.
The pipes are best supported on rollers which allow of movement without straining the joints.
The pipes have specially shaped ends between which a rubber collar is placed, the joint being held together by clips.
One end of each pipe is plain, so that it may be cut to any desired length; pipes with shaped ends obviously must be obtained in the exact lengths required.
From this pipe at various points are taken the supply pipes to baths, lavatories, sinks and other appliances.
An alternative plan is to pass the water through pipes placed in a steam chest.
In the ordinary working of a hot-water apparatus the expansion pipe already referred to will prevent any overdue pressure occurring in the boiler; should, however, the pipes Safety become blocked in any way while the apparatus is valves.
In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.
13 and 14), and pipes should be fitted with removable caps at the bends to allow for periodical cleaning.
Pipes are used inside the houses.
In depth, connected by means of three vertical pipes with a vapour-chest furnished with a large number, frequently as many as forty, of 3-in.
The pumps employed to force the oil through the pipes were at first of the single-cylinder or " donkey " type, but these were found to cause excessive wear - a defect remedied by the use of the Worthington pump now generally adopted.
The gas is distributed to the consumer from the wells in wrought-iron pipes, ranging in diameter from 20 in.
Riveted wrought-iron pipes 3 ft.
The most common method of distribution in cities and towns is by a series of pipes from 12 in.
To these pipes the service-pipes leading into the houses of the consumers are connected.
At some distance from the shaft a square water-tight wall was built, and the space between it and the shaft was filled in with sand, which was purified of all saline matter by repeated washings; on the ground-level perforated stones set at the four corners of the basin admitted the rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets.
Of the 19,000 houses in Venice only 6000 have drains and sinks, all the others discharge sewage through pipes directly or indirectly into the canals.
With the rise and fall of the tide the discharge pipes are flushed at the bottom.
Barium chloride is present in some natural waters, and when this is the case the interaction of sulphates results in a deposition of barytes, as has occurred in the pipes and water-boxes of the Newcastle-on-Tyne coal mines.
Besides the royal foundry, with which are connected machine manufactories and boilerworks, there are other foundries, meal mills and manufactories of wire, gas pipes, cement and paper.