The chains of Shar, Grammos and Pindus constitute a kind of natural boundary, which does not, however, coincide with ethnical limits nor with the Turkish administrative divisions.
By the ranges of Grammos and Pindus; the entire chain, a prolongation of the Alpine systems of Bosnia and Dalmatia, may be described as the backbone of the peninsula; it forms the watershed between the Aegean and the Adriatic, and culminates in the lofty peak of Liubotrn, near Kalkandele, one of the highest summits in south-eastern Europe (8858 ft.).
The slopes of Pindus afford excellent pasture for the flocks of the Vlach shepherds.
PINDUS, the ancient name of the rugged group of mountains which separates Thessaly from Epirus, and branches south in various directions.
In the 5th century Pindar ascribes to Aegimius the institutions of the Peloponnesian Dorians, and describes them as the " Dorian folk of Hyllus and Aegimius," and as " originating from Pindus " (Pyth.
Herodotus, also in the 5th century, describes them as the typical (perhaps in contrast to Athenians as the only genuine) Hellenes, and traces their numerous wanderings from (I) an original home " in Deucalion's time " in Phthiotis (the Homeric " Hellas ") in south Thessaly, to (2) Histiaeotis " below Ossa and Olympus " in north-east Thessaly (note that the historic Histiaeotis is " below Pindus " in north-west Thessaly): this was " in the days of Dorus," i.e.
It is at this stage that the Dorians are regarded as becoming specifically distinct from the generic " Hellene ": thence (3) to a residence " in Pindus," where they passed as a " Macedonian people."
Here clearly two traditions are combined: - one, in which the Dorians originated from Hellas in south Thessaly, and so are " children of Hellen "; another, in which they were a " Macedonian people " intruded from the north, from Pindus, past Histiaeotis to Doris and beyond.
It is a noteworthy coincidence that in Macedonia also the royal family claimed Heracleid descent; and that " Pindus " is the name both of the mountains above Histiaeotis and of a stream in Doris.
The town stands on a rocky height commanding views of Pindus and Olympus; the approaching slopes are richly wooded, and traversed by picturesque waterfalls, from which the name of Vodena (Slav.
It is an offshoot of the Pindus range, 7080 ft.
They first appear at Dodona, whence they crossed Pindus into Phthiotis.
In the 10th century the Vlachs reappear as an independent power in Southern Macedonia and the Pindus district, which wer.e known as Great Walachia (MeyaXri BXaxia).
Pindus, and, dividing Aetolia from Acarnania, falls into the Ionian Sea.
The mountains of Attica, which form its most characteristic feature, are a continuation of that chain which, starting from Tymphrestus at the southern extremity of Pindus, passes through Phocis and Boeotia under the names of Parnassus and Helicon; from this proceeds the range which, as Cithaeron in its western and Parnes in its eastern portion, separates Attica from Boeotia, throwing off spurs southward towards the Saronic Gulf in Aegaleos and Hymettus, which bound the plain of Athens.
It forms an irregular square, extending for about sixty miles in each direction, and this area, which is for the most part level, is enclosed by well-marked boundaries - by the Cambunian Mountains on the north, and by Othrys on the south, while on its western side runs the massive chain of Pindus, which is the backbone of this part of Greece, and towards the east Ossa and Pelion stand in a continuous line; at the north-eastern angle is Olympus, the keystone of the whole mountain system.
The elevation of some of the summits in these ranges is considerable, for three of the peaks of Pindus are over 5000 ft., and Olympus, Ossa and Pelion reach respectively the height of 9790, 6398 and 5350 ft.
On the side of Epirus the main line of communication passed over that part of Pindus which was called Mount Lacmon, and descended the upper valley of the Peneius to Aeginium in the north-west angle of Thessaly.
Another pass through the Pindus chain was that of Gomphi, farther south, by means of which there was communication with the Ambracian Gulf.