The olive and the chestnut are rare; but the beech reappears, and the Pinus pinaster recalls the Italian pines.
On the alpine range itself and its immediate branches, at a height of 6000 to 10,000 ft., we have abundant growth of large forest trees, among which conifers are the most noble and prominent, such as Cedrus Deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinuslongifolia, P. Pinaster,P. Pinea (the edible pine) and the larch.
P. pinaster, the cluster pine or pinaster, is an important species from its vigorous growth in the sand-drifts of the coast, for the purpose of binding which it has been grown more extensively and successfully than any other tree, especially on the dunes of the Bay of Biscay.
The pinaster grows naturally on sandy soils around the Mediterranean from Spain to the Levant.
These forests of pinaster, apart from the production of timber in a once treeless district, have a great economic value as a source of turpentine, which is largely obtained from the trees by a process analogous to that employed in its collection from P. sylvestris; the resin is yielded from May to the end of September, the cuts being renewed as the supply fails, until the tree is exhausted; the trunks are then felled and used in the manufacture of charcoal and lamp black; much tar and pitch is also obtained from these pinaster forests.
The principal European product, sometimes distinguished as Bordeaux turpentine, is obtained from the cluster pine, Pinus Pinaster, in the Landes department of France.
The main source of supply in Europe is the "landes" of the departments of 'Gironde and Landes in France,, where the cluster pine, P. Pinaster, is extensively cultivated.