Wren's earlier designs have the exterior of the church arranged with one order of columns; the division of the whole height into two orders was an immense gain in increasing the apparent scale of the whole, and makes the exterior of St Paul's very superior to that of St Peter's in Rome, which is utterly dwarfed by the colossal size of the columns and pilasters of its single order.
The exterior brick walls are divided by shallow arches and pilasters, as in other churches of Ravenna.
The cathedral, of the 12th century, has a carved portal and three apses decorated with small arches and pilasters, and contains a fine pulpit and episcopal throne in marble mosaic. Near it are two grottos 1 To the period after 335 belong numerous silver and bronze coins with the legend Caleno.
Below the pediment comes an arcade with flat pilasters, which runs all round the exterior of the church.
Giovanni Evangelista at the Frari, with its fore-court and screen adorned by pilasters delicately decorated with foliage in low relief, and its noble staircase whose double flights unite on a landing under a shallow cupola.
The campanile is usually a plain brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces.
Excavations carried out in 1898-1899 showed that the structure was nearly square; the only portion remaining is the slightly curved front, with three niches between Corinthian pilasters; in the central niche is the statue of Philopappus.
A portion of its western front, adorned with monolith unfluted Corinthian columns, is still standing - the familiar " Stoa of Hadrian "; another well-preserved portion, with six pilasters, runs parallel to the west side of Aeolus Street.
In the interior, which is supported by four pilasters and eight columns, the most striking features are the octagonal font and the hexagonal pulpit, erected in 1260 by Niccola Pisano.
The rest of the exterior is built in bands of red and white, with slightly projecting pilasters along the walls; it has a noble cloister, with two storeys of arcading.
The town hall, with its light open loggia of semicircular arches on the ground floor, was designed by Fra Giocondo towards the end of the i 5th century; its sculptured enrichments of pilasters and friezes are very graceful, though lacking the vigorous life of the earlier medieval sculptured ornamentation.
Zeno and the cathedral, both of which were mainly rebuilt Arci?i in the 12th century, are noble examples of the Lombardic style, with few single-light windows, and with the walls decorated externally by series of pilasters, and by alternating bands of red and white, in stone or brick.
The socalled Arco di Riccardo is a half-buried Roman arch with Corinthian pilasters, possibly a triumphal arch, possibly connected with an aqueduct.
To the east of this is a large space, now open, but once very possibly roofed, and forming a basilica in two storeys, built against the rock on the north side, and there decorated with pilasters also; and to the east again is an apsidal hall, often identified with the temple itself, in which the famous mosaic with scenes from the Nile, now in the Palazzo Barberini on the uppermost terrace, was found.
The facades are simple, without galleries, having only pilasters projecting from the wall, and are also alternately black and white.
The other public buildings of the town include the gildhall and law courts, in the Italian style with Corinthian pillars and pilasters, built in 1847 and internally remodelled in 1901; a prison (1829); a fine market hall (1830), rebuilt in 1897; a cattle market and abattoirs (1869); the Albert Hall for concerts and public meetings (1864); the; Royal Metal Exchange (1897); harbour trust offices (1904); a central post office (1901) and two theatres.
The eight side chapels alone are complete, and their pointed arches spring from Renaissance pilasters planted on black marble elephants, the Malatesta emblems, or on baskets of fruit held by children.
The surface of the pilasters is divided into compartments encrusted with bas-reliefs of various subjects and styles.
Everywhere - on the balustrades closing the chapels, round the base of the pilasters, along the walls, beneath the cornice of both the exterior and the interior of the church - there is one ornament that is perpetually repeated, the interwoven initials of Sigismondo and Isotta.
An altar also from Khorsabad (now in the British Museum) has a circular table and a solid base triangular on plan, with pilasters ornamented with animals' paws at the angles.
The inner face .of the arches, with the spandrils and the pilasters which support them, are covered with flowers and foliage of delicate design and dainty execution, crusted in green serpentine, blue lapis lazuli and red and purple porphyry.