When in 1821 the Austrian army was moved south to coerce the Neapolitans, Santarosa entered into a conspiracy to obtain the intervention of the Piedmontese in favour of the Neapolitans by an attack on the Austrian lines of communication.
Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword at the disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties with the Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 strong, but shortly after taking the field was obliged, by the defeat of Custozza, to flee to Switzerland.
CARMAGNOLE (from Carmagnola, the town in Italy), a word first applied to a Piedmontese peasant costume, well known in the south of France, and brought to Paris by the revolutionaries of Marseilles in 1798.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.
The Italian army grew o~it of the old Piedmontese army with which in the main the unification of Italy was brought about.
To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.
The treaty of Cteau Cambresis in 1559, and the evacuation of the Piedmontese cities held by French and Spanish troops in 1574, restored his state.
Bona- The anathemas of the pope, the bravery of Piedmontese and Austrians, and the subsidies of Great Britain failed to keep the league of Italian princes against France intact.
There had been some mild plotting against Austria in Milan, and an attempt was made to co-operate with the Piedmontese movement of 1821; already in.
Another work of a similar kind was Le Speranze dItalia (1844) by the Piedmontese Count Cesare Balbo.
A third important publication was Massimo dAzeglios Degli ultimi casi di Romagna, in which the author, another Piedmontese nobleman, exposed papal misgovernment while condemning the secret societies and advocating open resistance and protest.
The Piedmontese defeated the enemy ~t Pastrengo (April 30), but did not profit by the victory.
On the 23rd, 24th and 25th of July (first battle of Custozza) the Piedmontese were defeated and forced to retire on Milan with Radetzkys superior force in pursuit.
His proposal to reinstate Leopold and the pope with Piedmontese arms, so as to avoid Austrian intervention, was rejected by both potentates, and met with opposition even in Piedmont, which would thereby have forfeited its prestige throughout Italy.
On the 12th of March 1849, he denounced the armistice, and, owing to the want of confidence in Piedmontese strategy after 1848, gave the chief command to the Polish General Chrzanowski.
The Italian cause had been crushed, but revolution and war had strengthened the feeling of unity, for Neapolitans had fought for Venice, Lombards for Rome, Piedmontese for all Italy.
It was now evident that the federal idea was impossible, for none of the princes except Victor Emmanuel could be trusted, and that unity and freedom could not be achieved under a republic, for nothing could be done without the Piedmontese army, which was royalist to the core.
When the terms of the Austro-Piedmontese armistice were announced in the Chamber at Turin they aroused great indignation, but the king succeeded in convincing the deputies Piedmont that they were inevitable.
Legislation had to be entirely reformed, and the bill for abolIshing the special jurisdiction for the clergy (foro ecclesiastico) and other medieval privileges aroused the bitter opposition of the Vatican as well as of the Piedmontese clericals.
The Piedmontese government rightly regarded this measure as a violation of the peace treaty of 1850, and Cavour recalled the Piedmontese minister from Vienna, an action which was endorsed by Italian public opinion generally, and won the approval of France and England.
But afterlong negotiations Congress the treaty of alliance was signed in January 1855, and iris, while Austria remained neutral, a well-equipped Piedmontese force of 15,000 men, under General La Marmora, sailed for the Crimea.
The Piedmontese troops distinguished themselves in the field, gaining the sympathies of the French and English; and at the subsequent congress of Paris (1856), where Cavour himself was Sardinian representative, the Italian question was discussed, and the intolerable oppression of the Italian peoples by Austria and the despots ventilated.
Piedmontese finances had been strained to breaking-point to organize an army obviously intended for other than merely defensive purposes.
On the 1st of January 1859, Napoleon astounded the diplomatic world by remarking to Baron Hubner, the Austrian ambassador, at the New Years reception at the Tuileries, that he regretted that relations between France and Austria were not so good as they had been; and at the opening of the Piedmontese parliament on the 10th Victor Emmanuel pronounced the memorable words that he could not be insensible to the cry of pain (ii grido di dolore) which reached him from all parts of Italy.
But the king and Cavour were terribly upset by this move, which meant peace without Venetia; Cavour hurried to the kings headquarters at Monzambano Armistice and in excited, almost disrespectful, language implored ~0ranca~ him not to agree to peace and to continue the war alone, relying on the Piedmontese army and a general Italian revolution.
At the same time he was resolutely opposed to the Piedmontese annexations in central Italy.
In August Marco Minghetti succeeded in forming a military league and a customs union between Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies, and in procuring the adoption of the Piedmontese codes; and envoys were sent to Paris to mollify Napoleon.
~ the 11th of September a Piedmontese army of 35,000 men of ~ ssed the frontier at La Cattolica,; on the 18th the pontifical Th ny was crushed at Castelfidardo; and when, on the 29th, sep coria fell, TJmbria and the Marches were in the power of we!
The Piedmontese under an tldini had begun the siege on the 5th of November, but it was He ~ not until the 10th of January ~86i, when at the age, o!
Cavour, on the other hand, while anxious to deal irously with the Garibaldians, recognized the impossibility of such urse, which would not only have offended the conservative spirit :he Piedmontese military caste, which disliked and despised 101am troops, but would almost certainly have introduced into the y an element of indiscipline and disorder.
This affair resulted in an important bu litical change, for the Piedmontese deputies, hitherto the th Llwarks of moderate conservatism, now shifted to the Left or 3rf nstitutional opposition.
To allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
At Colmars, on the 21st of Ma 1 794, he drew up the first draft of his Italian plan of campaigi, for severing the Piedmontese from their Austrian allies and for driving the latter out of their Italian provinces.
GIUSEPPE SARACCO (1821-1907), Italian politician and financier, and knight of the Annunziata, was born at Bistagno on the 9th of October 1821, and, after qualifying as an advocate, entered the Piedmontese parliament in 1849.
The Piedmontese forces won two actions (8th of April and 30th of May 1848) over the Austrians here.
LUIGI CIBRARIO, Count (1802-1870), Italian statesman and historian, descended from a noble but impoverished Piedmontese family, was born in Usseglia on the 23rd of February 1802.
The granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed (17th February 1848) by that of Tuscany, drawn up by Gino Capponi.
When in 1859 France and Piedmont made war on Austria, Leopold's government failed to prevent numbers of young Tuscan volunteers from joining the Franco-Piedmontese forces.
Louis agreed to restore most of the fortresses he had captured and to make other concessions; a treaty was signed in 1696, and Victor appointed generalissimo of the Franco-Piedmontese forces in Italy operating against the imperialists.
At first the French were successful and captured several Piedmontese fortresses, but after besieging Turin, which was skilfully defended by the duke, for several months, they were completely defeated by Victor and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven out of the other towns they had captured.
He was elected member of the first Piedmontese parliament and was a strenuous supporter of Cavour; during the Crimean campaign he took General La Marmora's place as war minister.
In the campaign of 1849 he commanded the first Piedmontese division; he subsequently served in the Crimea, in the war of 1859, and in that of 1866 as commander of the I.
When on the outbreak of the war of 1859 Francis V., duke of Modena, was expelled and a provisional government set up, Farini was sent as Piedmontese commissioner to that city; but although recalled after the peace of Villafranca he was determined on the annexation of central Italy to Piedmont and remained behind, becoming a Modenese citizen and dictator of the state.
On the fall of Napoleon in 1814 the Piedmontese court returned to Turin and the king was anxious to secure the succession for Charles Albert, knowing that Austria meditated excluding him from it in favour of an Austrian archduke, but at the same time he regarded him as an objectionable person on account of his revolutionary upbringing.
The Piedmontese government at this time was most reactionary, and had made a clean sweep of all French institutions.
Charles Albert no doubt was aware of this, but he never actually became a Carbonaro, and was surprised and startled when after the outbreak of the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 some of the leading conspirators in the Piedmontese army, including Count Santorre di Santarosa and Count San Marzano, informed him that a military rising was ready and that they counted on his help (2nd March 1821).
When the news of the Milanese revolt against the Austrians reached Turin (19th of March) public opinion demanded that the Piedmontese should succour their struggling brothers; and after some hesitation the king declared war.
With an army of 60,000 Piedmontese troops and 30,000 men from other parts of Italy the king took the field, and after defeating the Austrians at Pastrengo on the 30th of April, and at Goito on the 30th of May, where he was himself slightly wounded, more time was wasted in useless operations.
Radetzky, the Austrian general, having received reinforcements, drove the centre of the extended Italian line back across the Mincio (23rd of July), and in the two days' fighting at Custozza (24th and 25th of July) the Piedmontese were beaten, forced to retreat, and to ask for an armistice.
Of France and a young Piedmontese, Filippe Duc. The constable de Montmorency went so far as to assert that of all the children of Henry II.
But on the outbreak of the war between Piedmont and Austria in 1848 he hurried back to Italy, and although at first his services were rejected both by the Piedmontese government and the Lombard provisional government, he was afterwards given the command of a Lombard brigade.
He was elected member of the Piedmontese chamber in 1849, and on the renewal of the campaign he again commanded a Lombard brigade under General Ramorino.
After the Piedmontese defeat at Novara (23rd of March) peace was made, but a rising broke out at Genoa, and Fanti with great difficulty restrained his Lombards from taking part in it.
But he was suspected as a Mazzinian and a soldier of fortune by the higher Piedmontese officers, and they insisted on his being courtmartialled for his operations under Ramorino (who had been tried and shot).
The early colonists were German Lutherans (Salzburgers), Piedmontese, Scottish Highlanders, Swiss, Portuguese Jews and Englishmen; but the main tide of immigration, from Virginia and the Carolinas, did not set in until 1752.
At last in 1558 the powers agreed to an armistice, and in 1559 the peace of Cateau-Cambresis was made, by which Emmanuel regained his duchy, but on onerous terms, for France was to occupy several Piedmontese fortresses, including Turin and Pinerolo, for not more than three years, and a marriage was arranged between the duke and Margaret, duchess of Berry, sister of the French king; while Spain was to garrison Asti and Vercelli (afterwards exchanged for Santhia) until France evacuated the above-mentioned fortresses.
The Piedmontese company takes over from the government the control of all the irrigation within a triangle between the left bank of the Po and the right bank of the Sesia.
The Imperial army, strictly speaking, was one third composed of Dutch, Belgians, men from the borders of the Rhine, Piedmontese, Swiss, Genevese, Tuscans, Romans, inhabitants of the Thirty-second Military Division, of Bremen, of Hamburg, and so on: it included scarcely a hundred and forty thousand who spoke French.