It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
Obviously no more than this is possible until physiologists are able to state much more precisely than at present what is the influence of common salt on the plants of salt-marshes, of the action of calcium carbonate on plants of calcareous soils, and of the action of humous compounds on plants of fens and peat moors.
In the present state of knowledge, however, this can only be done in a very meagre fashion; as the effect of habitat factors on plants is but little understood as yet either by physiologists or ecologists.
His true greatness can only be estimated by a consideration of the fact that he was a great teacher not only of human and comparative anatomy and zoology but also of physiology, and that nearly all the most distinguished German zoologists and physiologists of the period 1850 to 1870 were his pupils and acknowledged his leadership. The most striking feature about Johann Miller's work, apart from the comprehensiveness of his point of view, in which he added to the anatomical and morphological ideas of Cuvier a consideration of physiology, embryology and microscopic structure, was the extraordinary accuracy, facility and completeness of his recorded observations.
It turns in part, but in part only, upon the laws regulating the effusion of lymph, and physiologists are by no means at one in their conclusions on this subject.
In Italy the tradition of the great anatomists and physiologists of the 17th century produced a series of accurate observers and practitioners.
This instrument, now indispensable in our daily work at the bedside, had indeed long been known both to physiologists (Haller) and to clinicians.
From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E.
And on the influence of these inconspicuous bodies and of the pituitary body in sustaining arterial blood pressures physiologists have thrown some important light.
It is at best an unfruitful assumption; and the tendency of students of sociology is to treat discussions as to sovereignty much as modern physiologists treat discussions as to "vital force" or "vital principle."
The motor nerves of the arteries, of the bladder and rectal sphincters, and also of the bronchi, are paralysed by atropine, but the nervous arrangements of those organs are highly complex and until they are further unravelled by physiologists, pharmacology will be unable to give much information which might be of great value in the employment of atropine.
Physicians and physiologists have frequently discussed celibacy from their professional point of view; but it will be sufficient to note here the results of statistical inquiries.
Until recent years the supposed inheritance of characters acquired by a dam from one or more of her former mates was usually designated by breeders "throwing back"; by physiologists, "infection of the germ," or simply "infection."
In conclusion, it may be pointed out that it was only natural for breeders and physiologists in bygone days to account for some of their results by the "infection" hypothesis.
The methods of research are essentially those employed by physiologists, the action of substances being studied in the usual way on bacteria, leucocytes, frogs, rabbits and other animals.
The spermatozoa have received a great share of attention, on the part not only of anatomists and physiologists, but even of systematic workers (40).
Muller numbered such distinguished physiologists as H.
Their trial and conviction for manslaughter may be found in the daily periodicals of the date; but, strange to say, the experimental physiologists and nurses escaped scot-free.