Such groups are interesting in that they are vegetation units whose physiognomy is, in a broad sense, related more to climatic than to edaphic conditions.
Yobai, the reputed compiler of the Zohar; (6) " The Secret of Secrets," a treatise on physiognomy and psychology; (7) " The Aged," i.e.
The whole physiognomy is fleshy and markedly distinct from that of other Syrians.
(5) The physiognomy given to Kheta warriors by Egyptian artists is fairly representative of the prevailing type shown in the Hittite sculptures.
Their general physiognomy is hardly Cilician or Hittite, but European.
Nothing in the general physiognomy of the islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the volcanoes, active or extinct.
This is in two books, the first on the expression of the eye, the second on physiognomy in general, mostly Aristotelian in character.
But cultivation rapidly changes the physiognomy of the steppe.
The general physiognomy of the Indian flora is mainly determined by the conditions of humidity of climate.
[Ascribed to the school of Theophrastus and Strabo by Zeller.] 234 4,vacoyvw,uovtci: Physiognomonica: On physiognomy, and the sympathy of body and soul.
Externally the most striking feature of the bird is its head, armed with a powerful beak that it well knows how to use, and its face clothed with hairs and elongated feathers that sufficiently resemble the physiognomy of an owl to justify the generic name bestowed upon it.
PHYSIOGNOMY, the English form of the middle Greek 4uo-coyvwµia, a contraction of the classical ciuotoyvcoµovia (from qSvQCs, nature, and yvc'oµwv, an interpreter), (i) a term which denotes a supposed science for the " discovery of the disposition of the mind by the lineaments of the body " (Bacon); (2) is also used colloquially as a synonym for the face or outward appearance, being variously spelled by the old writers: fysenamy by Lydgate, phisnomi in Udall's translation of Erasmus on Mark iv., physnomie in Bale's English Votaries (i.
Physiognomy was regarded by those who cultivated it as a twofold science: (r) a mode of discriminating character by the outward appearance, and (2) a method of divination from form and feature.
C. 5 (1743) all persons pretending to have skill in physiognomy were deemed rogues and vagabonds, and were liable to be publicly whipped, or sent to the house of correction until next sessions.'
Thus far physiognomy is a branch of physiology.
To a brief study of physiognomy (ed.
Ilept KaTaeAiaews 7rpo'yvwo ruca, he speaks of the advantage of a knowledge of physiognomy to the physician.'
We learn both from Iamblichus6 and Porphyry' that Pythagoras practised the diagnosis of the characters of candidates for pupilage before admitting them, although he seems to have discredited the current physiognomy of the schools, as he rejected Cylo, the Crotonian, on account of his professing these doctrines, and thereby was brought into some trouble.
The practice of physiognomy is alluded to in many of the Greek classics."
Other references exist to physiognomy in Cassiodorus, Isidorus, Meietius and Nemesius, but none of any great importance.
Among the Latin classical authors Juvenal, Suetonius and Pliny in well-known passages refer to the practice of physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the Christian Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria and Origen (for example, the familiar passage in his work against Celsus, i.
Along with the medical science of the period the Arabians contributed to the literature of physiognomy; `Ali b.
Among medieval writers Albertus Magnus (born 1205) devotes much of the second section of his De animalibus to physiognomy; but this chiefly consists of extracts from Aristotle, Polemon and Loxus.
He does not enter into the animal comparisons of his predecessors, but occupies himself chiefly with simple descriptive physiognomy as indicative of character; and the same is true of the scattered references in the writings of Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas.
Physiognomy also forms the third part of his work De secretis naturae.
The development of a more accurate anatomy in the 17th century seems to have diminished the interest in physiognomy, by substituting fact for fiction; and consequently the literature, though as great in quantity, became less valuable in quality.
Evelyn (in the appendix to Numismata), Baldus, Bulwer (in his Pathomyotomia), Fuchs, Spontoni, Ghiradelli, 1 For Scriptural allusions to physiognomy see Vecchius, Observationes in div.
Fiilleborn reviewed the relation of physiognomy to philosophy.
With Lavater the descriptive school of physiognomists may be said to have ended, as the astrological physiognomy expired with De la Belliere.
The few works which have since appeared, before the rise of the physiological school of Sir Charles Bell and Charles Darwin, are undeserving of notice, the development of phrenology having given to pure physiognomy the coup de grace by taking into itself whatever was likely to live of the older science.
The physiological school of physiognomy was foreshadowed by Parsons and founded by Sir Charles Bell, whose Essay on the Anatomy of the Expression, published in 1806, was the first scientific study of the physical manifestation of emotions in the terms of the muscles which produce these manifestations.
His biting wit involved him in many controversies with well-known contemporaries, such as Lavater, whose science of physiognomy he ridiculed, and Voss, whose views on Greek pronunciation called forth a powerful satire, Ober die Pronunciation der Schopse des alten Griechenlandes (1782).
In many parts the prevailing types have been modified by intermarriage with Bulgars, Albanians and Vlachs; so that, along the Timok, for instance, it is impossible to make physiognomy a test of nationality.
A flat face, with high cheek-bones, presents a physiognomy resembling the Chinese, and suggests no idea of beauty.
The Koreans are distinct from both Chinese and Japanese in physiognomy, though dark straight hair, dark oblique eyes, and a tinge of bronze in the skin are always present.
But the Hebrew ancestry of the Afghans is more worthy at least of consideration, for a respectable number of intelligent officers, well acquainted with the Afghans, have been strong in their belief of it; and though the customs alleged in proof will not bear the stress laid on them, undoubtedly a prevailing type of the Afghan physiognomy has a character strongly Jewish.
The inhabitants are of many diverse races, the various nationalities being frequently distinguishable by differences in dress as well as in physiognomy and colour.
33).1 While the earlier classical physiognomy was chiefly descriptive, the later medieval authors particularly developed the predictive and astrological side, their treatises often digressing into chiromancy, onychomancy, clidomancy, podoscopy, spasmatomancy, and other blanches of prophetic folk-lore and magic.
In 1817 Dr Cross of Glasgow wrote his defence of a scientific physiognomy based on general physiological principles.
Illustrations of these theoretic propositions are to be found in the works of Bell, Duchenne and 'Darwin, and in the later publications of Theodor Piderit, Mimike and Physiognomik (1886) and Mantegazza, Physiognomy and Expression (1890), to which the student may be referred for further information.
For information on artistic anatomy as applied to physiognomy see th catalogue of sixty-two authors by Ludwig Choulant, Geschichte and Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung, &c. (Leipzig, 1852), and the works of the authors enumerated above, especially those of Aristotle, Franz, Porta, Cardan, Corvus and Bulwer.
For physiognomy of disease, besides the usual medical handbooks, see Cabuchet, Essai sur l'expression de la face dans les maladies (Paris, 1801); Mantegazza, Physiology of Pain (1893), and Polli, Saggio di fisiognomonia e potognomonia (1837).