Possessing an immense range of knowledge, he has filled up lacunae in nearly every part of physics, by experiment, by calculation, and by clear accurate thought.
LEOPOLDO NOBILI (1784-1835), Italian physicist, born at Reggio nell' Emilia in 1784, was in youth an officer of artillery, but afterwards became professor of physics in the archducal museum at Florence, the old habitat of the Accademia del Cimento.
The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
These were so highly thought of that in 1909 he was appointed extraordinary professor of theoretical physics at the university of Zurich.
He was summoned from his seclusion in 1871 to become the first holder of the newly founded professorship of Experimental Physics in Cambridge; and it was under his direction that the plans of the Cavendish Laboratory were prepared.
The only circumstance which physics has to consider is the transference of movement from one particle to another, and the change of its direction.
In 1845 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry, physics and technology at the Wiesbaden Agricultural Institution, and three years later he became the first director of the chemical laboratory which he induced the Nassau government to establish at that place.
For eight years subsequently he held the chair of Physics and Astronomy in King's College, London, but resigned in 1868 and retired to his estate of Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire.
In 1834 he was appointed professor of physics, but in 5839 contracted an affection of the eyes while studying the phenomena of colour and vision, and, after much suffering, resigned.
He was appointed professor of physics at Berlin in 1839, and died there on the 12th of July 1877.
Magnus, he turned his attention to physics, and graduated in 1864 with a thesis on the depolarization of light.
The science of Descartes was physics in all its branches, but especially as applied to physiology.
In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
Rohault's version of the Cartesian physics was translated into English; and Malebranche found an ardent follower in John Norris (1667-171 I).
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physical chemistry a t Leipzig.
His eldest son, Eilhard Ernst Gustav, born at Berlin on the 1st of August 1852, became professor of physics at Erlangen in 1886, and his younger son, Alfred, born at Berlin on the 18th of July 1856, was appointed to the extraordinary professorship of Egyptology at Bonn in 1892.
From 1879 to 1884 he was Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, in succession to Clerk Maxwell; and in 1887 he accepted the post of professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, which he resigned in 1905.
In this way he has gone over a great portion of the field of physics, and in many cases has either said the last word for the time being, or else started new and fruitful developments.
In preparation for these he spent the winter of 1877-1878 in reading up original treatises like those of Laplace and Lagrange on mathematics and mechanics, and in attending courses on practical physics under P. G.
In 1911 he accepted the chair of physics in Prague, only to be induced to return to his own polytechnic school at Zurich as full professor in the following year.
In 1875 he was transferred to the Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and on the foundation of the Royal College of Science he became director of the solar physics observatory and professor of astronomical physics.
He was professor of mathematics at Gratz (1864-1867), of physics at Prague (1867-1895), and of physics at Vienna (1895-1901).
Returning to New Haven in 1869, he was appointed professor of mathematical physics in Yale College in 1871, and held that position till his death, which occurred at New Haven on the 28th of April 1903.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
Are: - (1) The extensive work on the fundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalium, which is found in the Mazarin library at Paris, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian and University College libraries at Oxford; (2) on the fundamental notions of mathematics, De Cornmunibus Mathematicae, part of which is in the Sloane collection, part in the Bodleian; (3) Baconis Physica, contained among the additional MSS.
Charles, however, has given good grounds for supposing that it is merely a preface, and that the work went on to discuss grammar, logic (which Bacon thought of little service, as reasoning was innate), mathematics, general physics, metaphysics and moral philosophy.
But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.
From 1863 to 1870 he was secretary and recorder to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in the last year of his life he lectured on mathematical physics at Harvard.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.