This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
The cause of medical materialism is the natural bias of physicians towards explaining the health and disease of mind by the health and disease of body.
There were physicians who understood the use of herbs, and must be rewarded when their help was invited.
According to others, he was poisoned by his physicians at the instigation of his son.
Oepair€ rrai, literally "attendants" or "physicians," hence "worshippers of God"), a monastic order among the Jews of Egypt, similar to the Essenes.
Philo himself was uncertain as to the meaning of the name, whether it was given to them because they were "physicians" of souls or because they were "servants" of the One God.
The regard of Napoleon for his consort was evidenced shortly before the birth of this prince, when he bade the physicians, if the lives of the mother and of the child could not both be saved, to spare her life.
There were also attached to a great household physicians, artists, secretaries, librarians, copyists, preparers of parchment, as well as pedagogues and preceptors of different kinds - readers, grammarians, men of letters and even philosophers - all of servile condition, besides accountants, managers and agents for the transaction of business.
According to modern physicians it is impossible to live many days in the caves of pozzolana in which many of the catacombs are excavated."
Having removed to London, he was admitted (November 6, 1618) a licentiate of the college of physicians, and attracted notice by a publication concerning the comet of 1618.
See Munk's College of Physicians, i.
He was the chief representative of the school of physicians known as "methodists."
The Royal College of Physicians is another learned body organized, with special privileges, by a charter of incorporation granted by Charles II.
Under the rule of the Abbasids, Bagdad became the centre of scientific thought; physicians and astronomers from India and Syria flocked to their court; Greek and Indian manuscripts were translated (a work commenced by the Caliph Mamun (813-833) and ably continued by his successors); and in about a century the Arabs were placed in possession of the vast stores of Greek and Indian learning.
The influence of these great academies of the 17th century on the progress of zoology was precisely to effect that bringing together of the museum-men and the physicians or anatomists which was needed for further development.
After the Spanish-American War American physicians had also given it their attention, with valuable results; see Stiles (Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin, No.
The deleterious influence of high bloodpressure has engaged the attention of physicians and pathologists in later years, and the conclusion arrived at is, that although it may arise from accidental causes, such as malcomposition of the blood, yet that in many instances it is a hereditary or family defect, and is bound up with the tendency to gout and cirrhotic degeneration of the kidney.
The record of the cure was inscribed on the columns or walls of the temple; and it has been thought that in this way was introduced the custom of "recording cases," and that the physicians of the Hippocratic school thus learnt to accumulate clinical experience.
That philosopher and several of his successors were physicians, but we do not know in what relation they stood to later medical schools.
It is probable that the science, like others, shared in the general intellectual decline of Greece after the Macedonian supremacy; but the works of physicians of the period are almost entirely lost, and were so even in the time of Galen.
The reputation of Herophilus is attested by the fact that four considerable physicians wrote works about him and his writings, and he is further spoken of with the highest respect by Galen and Celsus.
When Greece was made a Roman province, the number of such physicians who sought their fortunes in Rome must have been very large.
The most eminent of these earlier Greek physicians at Rome was Asclepiades, the friend of Cicero (born 124 B.C. at Prusa in Bithynia).
The conflicts of the opposing schools, and the obvious deficiencies of each, led many physicians to try and combine the valuable parts of each system, and to call themselves eclectics.
Among these were found many of the most eminent physicians of Graeco-Roman times.
It was not meant for the physicians, and was certainly little read by them, as Celsus is quoted by no medical writer, and when referred to by Pliny, is spoken of as an author not a physician.
He found the medical profession of his time split up into a number of sects, medical science confounded under a multitude of dogmatic systems, the social status and moral integrity of physicians degraded.
But the reputation of Galen grew slowly; he does not appear to have enjoyed any pre-eminence over other physicians of his time, to most of whom he was strongly opposed in opinion.
At the same time the Arabs became acquainted with Indian medicine, and Indian physicians lived at the court of Bagdad.
The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author.
In the 9th century Salernitan physicians were already spoken of, and the city was known as Civitas hippocratica.
Among the writers it may be sufficient to mention here Gariopontus; Copho, who wrote the Anatome porci, a well-known medieval book; Joannes Platearius, first of a family of physicians bearing the same name, whose Practica, or medical compendium, was afterwards several times printed; and Trotula, believed to be the wife of the last-named.
Of these two physicians the first probably, the latter certainly, was educated and practised abroad, but John Gaddesden (1280?-1361), the author of Rosa anglica seu Practica medicinae (between 1305 and 1317), was a graduate in medicine of Merton College, Oxford, and court physician.
The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
Since a knowledge of Greek was still confined to a small body of scholars, and a still smaller proportion of physicians, the first task was to translate the Greek classics into Latin.
To this work several learned physicians, chiefly Italians, applied themselves with great ardour.
Symphorien Champier (Champerius or Campegius) of Lyons (1472-1539), a contemporary of Rabelais, and the patron of Servetus, wrote with fantastic enthusiasm on the superiority of the Greek to the Arabian physicians, and possibly did something to enlist in the same cause the two far greater men just mentioned.
It was probably most so, and earliest, in the schools of Italy and in those of England, where the London College of Physicians might be regarded as an offshoot of the Italian schools.
Others, of more learning and better repute, were distinguished from the regular physicians chiefly by their use of chemical remedies.
In England "chemical medicine" is first heard of in the reign of Elizabeth, and was in like manner contemned and assailed by the College of Physicians and the Society of Apothecaries.
The progress of pharmacy was shown by the publication of Dispensatories or Pharmacopoeiae such as that of the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1618.
He was well acquainted with the works of the ancient physicians, and probably fairly so with chemistry.
The Catholic Church has more wisely left physicians in possession, and elevated the anointing of the sick into a sacrament to be used only in cases of mortal sickness, and even then not to the exclusion of the healing art.
Physicians to this day head their prescriptions with a sign that originally meant an invocation to Jupiter, but now represents the word recipe.
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
The prescription was improved by Damocrates and Andromachus, body physicians to Nero.
The practice of pharmacy was extended by the Arabian physicians, and the separation of it from medicine was recognized in the 8th, and legalized in the i ith century.
In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.
The drugs used by the physicians and apothecaries were purchased from the grossarii or sellers in gross, who were subsequently called 'grocers, some of whom specialized as druggists and others as chymists or chemists.
This arrangement was not, however, approved of by the physicians, who obtained in 1617 a separate charter for the apothecaries, to the number of 114, which was the number of physicians then practising in London.
In 1748 the Apothecaries' Corporation obtained a charter empowering them to license apothecaries to sell medicines in London, or within 7 m., and intended to use it to restrain chemists and druggists from practising pharmacy, and to prohibit physicians and surgeons from selling the medicines they prescribed; but the apothecaries, by paying increased attention to medical and surgical practice, had not only alienated the physicians and surgeons, but materially strengthened the position of chemists and druggists as dispensers of prescriptions.
Only a few of the principal ones can be mentioned: - the Custom House, the Royal Exchange, Marlborough House, Buckingham House, and the Hall of the College of Physicians - now destroyed; others which exist are - at Oxford, the Sheldonian theatre, the Ashmolean museum, the Tom Tower of Christ Church, and Queen's College chapel; at Cambridge, the library of Trinity College and the chapel of Pembroke, the latter at the cost of Bishop Matthew Wren, his uncle.
Other educational institutions are the Indianapolis College of Law (1897), the Indiana Medical College (the School of Medicine of Purdue University, formed in 1905 by the consolidation of the Medical College of Indiana, the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Fort Wayne College of Medicine), the State College of Physicians and Surgeons (the medical school of Indiana University), the Indiana Veterinary College (1892), the Indianapolis Normal School, the Indiana Kindergarten and Primary Normal Training School (private), and the Winona Technical Institute.
The verdict of the physicians was that the injured eye was hopelessly paralysed, and that the preservation of the sight of the other depended upon the maintenance of his general health.
Returning to London early in November, he found it necessary to consult his physicians for a symptom which, neglected since 1761, had gradually become complicated with hydrocele, and was now imperatively demanding surgical aid; but the painful operations which had to be performed did not interfere with his customary cheerfulness, nor did they prevent him from paying a Christmas visit to Sheffield Place.
More distinguished in his own day than any of these was Mead (1673-1754), one of the most accomplished and socially successful physicians of modern times.
An important academical position was, on the other hand, one of the reasons why a physician not very different in his way of thinking from the English physicians of the age of Queen Anne was able to take a far more predominant position in the medical world.
There were several prominent Boston physicians among them.
He laid out how doctors should conduct themselves professionally, how to record patient records, and even suggested matters of personal hygiene for physicians, right down to their fingernails.