MARSYAS, in Greek mythology, a Phrygian god or Silenus, son of Hyagnis.
He was originally the god of the small river of the same name near Celaenae, an old Phrygian town.
The story of Alexander's cutting the fatal "Gordian knot" on the chariot of the ancient Phrygian king Gordius is connected with his stay in this place.
We know from many sources the prominence assigned to women prophets in the Phrygian church.
SILENUS, a primitive Phrygian deity of woods and springs.
SABAZIUS, a Phrygian or Thracian deity, frequently identified with Dionysus, sometimes (but less frequently) with Zeus.
Also inscriptions in early Phrygian character and language, found in 1894.
The small Phrygian towns of Pepuza and Tymion were selected as the headquarters of his church.
It was a self-governing municipality, striking its, own coins, and stood on the Apamea-Synnada-Pessinus road, by which the celebrated marble called Synnadic, Docimian and Phrygian was conveyed to the coast.
His resemblance to Adonis has led to the theory that the names of the two are identical, and that Attis is only the Semitic companion of Syrian Aphrodite grafted on to the Phrygian Great Mother worship (Haakh, Stuttgarter-Philolog.- Vers., 18J7, 176 ff.).
But other religions of Oriental origin penetrated far, the worship of the Phrygian Great Mother, and in the 2nd century A.D.
Antigonus fixed his capital at the old Phrygian town of Celaenae, and the famous cities of Nicaea and Alexandria Troas owed to him their first foundation, each as an Antigonia; they were refounded and renamed by Lysimachus (301-281 B.C.).
It was not till the reign of Hadrian that city life on the Phrygian plateau became rich and vigorous, with its material circumstances of temples, theatres and baths.
Gravestones in this region as late as the 4th century curse violators in the old Phrygian speech.
According to Greek tradition there existed in early time a Phrygian kingdom in the Sangarius valley, ruled by kings among whom the names Gordius and Midas were common.
It is impossible to fix a date for the beginning of the Phrygian kingdom.
The Phrygian kingdom and art therefore took the place of an older civilization.
Early Phrygian art stands in close relationship with the art of Cappadocia.
The heraldic type of the two lions is the device over the principal gateway of Mycenae, and stamps this, the oldest great monument on Greek soil, with a distinctly Phrygian character.
Mycenae was the city of the Pelopidae, whom Greek tradition unhesitatingly declares to be Phrygian immigrants.
Gyges, the first Mermnad king of Lydia (687-653), had a Phrygian mother.
It is then natural that the Homeric poems refer to Phrygia in the terms above described, and make Priam's wife a Phrygian woman.