The style is better than that of Socrates and Sozomen, as Photius has remarked, but as a contribution to history the work is inferior in importance.
The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.
In this he follows Protagoras, who, according to Photius (cod.
Arrian p. 1, Miller, in Photius, Cod.
Further information is contained in the excerpts from Ctesias by Photius; cf.
The fragments in Photius and in the Apology of Pamphilus serve for comparison.
P. 487 seq.); Photius, Biblioth.
The origin and early history of the Parthian kingdom, of which we possess only very scanty information, is surrounded by fabulous legends, narrated by Arrian in his Parthica (preserved in Photius, cod.
The literature of succeeding centuries furnishes only isolated references; the more important are found in the scholia on Aristophanes, the lexicons of Hesychius, Photius and others, and the Etymologicum Magnum.
By Eusebius and Photius he is called Titus Flavius Clemens, and " c the Alexandrian " is added to his name.
Photius has also described some of them.
Others, however, have held to its genuineness, because in a Patch-work or Book of Miscellanies the difference of subject is no sound objection, and because Photius seems to have regarded our present eighth book as genuine (Phot.
Both Eusebius and Photius describe the work.
Jerome and Photius call the work Ecclesiastical Canons, but this seems to be a mistake.
Photius, probably on a careless reading of Clement, argued that he could not have believed in a real incarnation.
He was a saint up till the time of Benedict XIV., who read Photius on Clement, believed him, and struck the Alexandrian's name out of the calendar.
2; Photius, Contra Manich.
According to Photius, moreover, the Acts of Peter also were composed by this same Leucius Charinus, who, according to Zahn (Gesch.
Photius ascribes their composition to Leucius Charinus therefore to the 2nd century, but Lipsius assigns it to the early decades of the 3rd.
According to Photius (cod.
Both it and the original work are lost, with the exception of the excerpts in Photius and Suidas.
Photius praises the style of Hesychius, and credits him with being a veracious historian.
Pope Nicholas declared orders given by Photius of Constantinople null.
It was also used by Photius (c. 867), bk.
Photius and Petrus Siculus supply a few dates and events.
A class of Astati *7 -of) is also mentioned by Photius, i.
Certain features of Paulicianism noted by Photius and Petrus Siculus are omitted in Esc. One of these is the Christhood of the fully initiated, who as such ceased to be mere "hearers" (audientes) and themselves became vehicles of the Holy Spirit.
The last is probably identical with the work of which an abridgment has been preserved in Photius (cod.
Photius knew of nine letters by him which he called the Nine Muses; the twelve published under his name (Hercher, Epistolographi Graeci) are not genuine.
Interesting extracts from the last, of some length, are preserved in Photius (cod.
He wrote also forensic speeches; Phrynichus, in Photius, ranks him amongst the best orators, and mentions his orations as the standard of the pure Attic style.
It would be difficult to define very precisely the difference in French between a "conference" and a "sermon"; and the same difficulty seems to have been experienced in Greek by Photius, who says of the eloquent pulpit orations of Chrysostom, that they were oµLAiac rather than Aoyoc.
Photius describes him in his Bibliotheca (cod.
In the West there were no learned men who could vie with Photius (ca.
As each of the four books is sometimes called 'AvOoXoycov, it is probable that this name originally belonged to the entire work; the full title, as we know from Photius, was 'EKXorywv a1r049Eryµ6trwv uiroOrpc&v f3c(3Aia rb-rapa (Four Books of Extracts, Sayings and Precepts).
In the 5th century we may place Hesychius of Alexandria, the compiler of the most extensive of our ancient Greek lexicons, and Proclus, the author of a chrestomathy, to the extracts from which (as preserved by Photius) we owe almost all our knowledge of the contents of the lost epics of early Greece.
In the time of Photius the poets usually studied at school were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar; certain select plays of Aeschylus (Prometheus, Septem and Persae), Sophocles (Ajax, Electra and Oedipus Tyrannus), and Euripides (Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, and, next to these, Alcestis, Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea, Rhesus, Troades,) also Aristophanes (beginning with the Plutus), Theocritus, Lycophron, and Dionysius Periegetes.
One of the distinguished pupils of Photius, Arethas, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (c. 907-932), devoted himself with remarkable energy to collecting and expounding the Greek classics.
Xl.-lxvi., and by Photius, patriarch of Constantinople in the 9th century, who, according to Diestel (Gesch.
The Fihrist reckons seven principal works of Mani, six being in the Syriac and one in the Persian language; regarding some of these we also have information in Epiphanius, Augustine, Titus of Bostra, and Photius, as well as in the formula of abjuration (Cotelerius, PP. Apost.
21; Photius, cod.
Church became gradually more rare, the chief occasions being the question of the images in the 8th century, the quarrel between Photius and Ignatius in the 9th, the affairs of the four marriages of the emperor Leo VI.
He staunchly supported the patriarch Ignatius against his rival, Photius, at Constantinople; he upheld the rights of Teutberga, who had been repudiated by her husband, Lothair II.
During the religious struggles between the East and West he was on a few occasions condemned (by the Eastern council of Sardica, by Dioscorus, by Photius); but the sentences were not carried out, and were even, as in the case of Dioscorus, considered and punished as sacrilegious attacks.
Eunapius and Synesius call him a Lemnian; Photius a Tyrian; his letters refer to him as an Athenian.
Consequently his commentary on the epistle to the Romans, mentioned by the historian Socrates, and his epistles, mentioned by Philostorgius and Photius, are no longer extant.
The rest exists only in fragments preserved in Photius and the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
Even four centuries later, Photius, in referring to a collection of books called both Acts of Peter and the Recognition of Clement, does not make clear whether he means Homilies or Recognitions or either.
Hence the charge of impiety which Photius brings against him.
A further revision of this code is stated to have been made by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the son and successor of Leo, but this statement rests only on the authority of Theodorus Balsamon, a very learned canonist of the 12th century, who, in his preface to the Nomocanon of Patriarch Photius, cites passages from the Basilica which differ from the text of the code as revised by the emperor Leo.
HergenrOther, Photius (1867); C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897); Wetzer and Welte's Kirchenlexikon, ix.
He was misled by an incomplete excerpt in the history book.
As of old time," as Plutarch observed, " associated the heroes and snake most of all beasts with heroes," and in Photius local the term " speckled hero " thus finds an explanation.