Nuclein is a complex albuminoid substance containing phosphorus and iron in organic combination (Macallum).
He burned phosphorus in air standing over mercury, and showed that (1) there was a limit to the amount of phosphorus which could be burned in the confined air, (2) that when no more phosphorus could be burned, one-fifth of the air had disappeared, (3) that the weight of the air lost was nearly equal to the difference in the weights of the white solid produced and the phosphorus burned, (4) that the density of the residual air was less than that of ordinary air.
The molybdates are also capable of combining with other oxides (such as phosphorus and arsenic pentoxides) yielding very complex salts.
It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.
It may also be obtained by distilling chlorsulphonic acid with phosphorus pentachloride: 2S0 2 C1.
A year or two later field trials were begun in England, with the final result that basic slag has become recognized as a valuable source of phosphorus for growing crops, and is now in constant demand for application to the soil as a fertilizer.
It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus, wax, iodine, &c. It dissociates when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.
The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phosphate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as isomorphously related elements.
Phenyl salicylate, C6H4(OH) C 02C6H5, or salol, is obtained by heating salicylic acid, phenol and phosphorus oxychloride to 120-125° C.; by heating salicylic acid to 2 =0° C.; or by heating salicyl metaphosphoric acid and phenol to 140-150° C. (German Patent 85,565).
By the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen to the nitriles, or by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on the acid-amides.
A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.
Soc., 1856, 7, p. 11) by the direct union of sulphur trioxide with hydrochloric acid gas, may also be obtained by distilling concentrated sulphuric acid with phosphorus oxychloride: 2H 2 SO 4 +POC1 3 =2SO 2 C1.
The specifications for bull-headed rails issued by the British Engineering Standards Committee in 1904 provided for a carbon-content ranging from 0-35 to 0-50%, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.075%.
For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.
Michaels (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1383) by distilling thebenol over zinc dust in a stream of hydrogen, or by the action of hydriodic acid and phosphorus at 220° C. on thebenol.
It is obtained by the oxidation of xanthene (methylene diphenylene oxide) with chromic acid; by the action of phosphorus oxychloride on disodium salicylate; by heating 2 2'-dioxybenzophenone with concentrated sulphuric acid; by distilling fluoran with lime; by the oxidation of xanthydrol (R.
Thus, the symbols 14 2 and P4 indicate that the molecules of hydrogen and phosphorus respectively contain 2 and 4 atoms. Since, according to the molecular theory, in all cases of chemical change the action is between molecules, such symbols as these ought always to be employed.
But not only is the combining power or valency (atomicity) of the elements different, it is also observed that one element may combine with another in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae PC1 3 and PC1 51 nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the formulae N 2 0, NO, (N203), N 2 O 4, N205, molybdenum forms the chlorides MoC1 2, MoC1 3, MoC1 4, MoC1 5, MoCls(?), and tungsten the chlorides WC1 2, WCl 4, WC1 5, WC16.
Foerster and by Pullinger; the phosphoplatinic compounds formed primarily from platinum and phosphorus pentachloride; and also the " ammino " compounds, formed by the union of ammonia with the chloride, &c., of these metals, which have been studied by many chemists, especially S.
Of other phosphorus compounds we may here notice Gengembre's discovery of phosphuretted hydrogen (phosphine) in 1783, the analogy of which to ammonia was first pointed out by Davy and supported at a later date by H.
Of the halogen compounds of phosphorus, the trichloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the pentachloride was obtained by Davy.
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
In 1845 a further contribution to the study of allotropy was made by Anton Schrotter, who investigated the transformations of yellow and red phosphorus, phenomena previously noticed by Berzelius, the inventor of the term " allotropy."
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be examined in the usual way) by lixiviating the product obtained when the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate.
The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid.
Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid.
38, p. 1 434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.
Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
This may be effected by burning phosphorus in a confined volume of air, by the action of an alkaline solution of pyrogallol on air, by passing air over heated copper, or by the action of copper on air in the presence of ammoniacal solutions.
It does not support the combustion of a taper, but burning phosphorus and red-hot carbon will continue to burn in the gas.
It is also prepared by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on potassium nitrite or on nitrogen peroxide.
The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.
Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.
Being equally, but only slightly, increased; replacement of phosphorus by arsenic was attended by a considerable increase, equally in x and >', while w suffered a smaller, but not inconsiderable, increase.
He applied himself more particularly to the oxygen compounds, and determined with a fair degree of accuracy the ratio of carbon to oxygen in carbon dioxide, but his values for the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in water, and of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric acid, are only approximate; he introduced no new methods either for the estimation or separation of the metals.
Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
The discovery of phosphorus by Brand, a Hamburg alchemist, in 1669 excited chemists to an unwonted degree; it was also independently prepared by Robert Boyle and J.
Straight lines and semicircles were utilized for the non-metallic elements, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur!
4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.