Of other phosphorus compounds we may here notice Gengembre's discovery of phosphuretted hydrogen (phosphine) in 1783, the analogy of which to ammonia was first pointed out by Davy and supported at a later date by H.
Phenyl-acridine is the parent base of chrysaniline, which is the chief constituent of the dyestuff phosphine (a bye-product in the manufacture of rosaniline).
They Are Removed By Passing The Vapours In Succession Through Concentrated Solutions Of The Caustic Alkalis, Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, And Triethyl Phosphine; The Residual Gas Is Then Purified By Liquefaction (W.
When finely divided it decomposes water giving hydrogen phosphide; it also reduces sulphurous and sulphuric' acids, and when boiled with water gives phosphine and hypophosphorous acid; when slowly oxidized under water it yields, hypophosphoric acid.
Phosphine (phosphoretted hydrogen), PH 31 a gas formed in the putrefaction of organic matter containing phosphorus, was obtained by Gengembre (Crell's Ann., 1789, i.
Phys., 1835 , 60, p. 174) showed that the inflammability of Gengembre's phosphine was due to small quantities of liquid phosphoretted hydrogen, P 2 H 4.
By passing the products of the decomposition of calcium phosphide with water over granular calcium chloride, the P 2 H 4 gives a new hydride, P1.2H6 and phosphine, the former being an odourless, canary-yellow, amorphous powder.
Solid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 4 H 2, first obtained by Le Verrier (loc. cit.), is formed by the action of phosphorus trichloride on gaseous phosphine (Besson, Comptes rendus, 111, p. 972); by the action of water on phosphorus di-iodide and by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.
When warmed with alcoholic potash it yields gaseous phosphine, hydrogen and a hypophosphite.
Phosphonium Salts.-The chloride, PH 4 C1, was obtained as a crystalline solid by Ogier (Comptes rendus, 1879, 89, p. 705) by combining phosphine and hydrochloric acid gas under a pressure of from 14-20 atmospheres; it can also be obtained at -30° to -35° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure.
Ann., 1832, 24, p. 151) from phosphine and hydrobromic acid; it also results when phosphorus is heated with hydrobromic acid to 100120° C. in sealed tubes (Damoiseau, Bull.
It is also prepared by the action of iodine on gaseous phosphine, or by heating amorphous phosphorus with concentrated hydriodic acid solution to 160° C. It crystallizes in large cubes and sublimes readily.
Water and the caustic alkalis readily decompose it with liberation of phosphine and the formation of iodides or hydriodic acid.
Just as the amines are derived from ammonia, so from phosphine are derived the primary, secondary and tertiary organic phosphines by the exchange of hydrogen for alkyl groups, and corresponding to the phosphonium salts there exists a series of organic phosphonium bases.
The reaction mixture on treatment with water yields the primary phosphine, the secondary phosphine being then liberated from its hydriodide by caustic soda.
The primary and secondary phosphines are colourless compounds, and with the exception of methyl phosphine are liquid at ordinary temperature.
On oxidation they yield phosphine oxides, R 3 P O.
They differ from the organic ammonium hydroxides in their behaviour when heated, yielding phosphine oxides and paraffin hydrocarbons: R4P OH=R3PO+RH.
Exposure to air gives phosphorous and phosphoric acids, and on heating it gives phosphine and phosphoric acid.
On heating they yield phosphine and leave a residue of pyrophosphate, or a mixture of metaand pyrophosphates, with a little phosphorus.
It decomposes on heating into phosphine and phosphoric acid.
Arsenic phosphide, AsP, results when phosphine is passed into arsenic trichloride, being precipitated as a red-brown powder.