The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).
Phosphates and chemical manures; calcitim carbide; explosivi powder; dynamite and other explosives.
The ordinary ammonium molybdate, used as a test reagent for phosphates, is a salt of composition (NH4)10M012041; it has been examined physicochemically by J.
Deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.
The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.
The pseudo-coprolites of the Suffolk Crag have been estimated by Herapath to be as rich in phosphates as the true ichthyo-coprolites and saurio-coprolites of other formations, the proportion of P 2 O 5 contained varying between 12.5 and 37.25%, the average proportion, however, being 32 or 33%.
Way, showed the presence of phosphates equivalent to 55'96 of bone-earth (Journ.
Manures), manufactured or imported, to state the percentage of the nitrogen, of the soluble and insoluble phosphates, and of the potash in each article sold, and this statement was to have the effect of a warranty.
The leading industries are the crushing of palm-kernels and linseed and the manufacture of india-rubber, phosphates, starch, nitrate and jute.
Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.
If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates.
The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.
Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.
9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.
Salt and phosphates of lime are exported.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
Phosphates, necessary for the formation of skeletons and also for the nucleo-proteid of cells, are about as scarce as nitrogen.
Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.
The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage, cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread and vegetables.
Form an insoluble calcium soap. The interaction between the soaps, the phosphates and the carbonates which are brought by the blood and lymph to the part results in the weaker fatty acids being replaced by phosphoric and carbonic acid, and thus in the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate and carbonate deposits in the disorganized tissues.
The theory most widely accepted at present is that glass is a quickly solidified solution, in which silica, silicates, borates, phosphates and aluminates may be either solvents or solutes, and metallic oxides and metals may be held either in solution or in suspension.
The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.
9,200 „ From the figures given previously of the amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid removed by a wheat or mangel crop it would appear that this soil has enough of these ingredients in it to yield many such crops; yet experience has shown that these crops cannot be grown on such a poor sandy soil unless manures containing phosphates, potash and nitrogen are added.
025 or 03%, respond freely to applications of phosphates; probably in such cases even the weak acid is capable of dissolving out phosphates from the humus or other compounds which yield little or none to the roots of grasses and clovers.
On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.
Of zinc phosphates we notice the minerals hopeite, Zn.
Valuable deposits of phosphates are present, chiefly in the south-west of Tunisia, in the district of Gafsa.
The export of phosphates rose from 445,000 tons in 1904 to 1,267,000 tons in 1908.
The principal exports are olive oil, wheat, esparto grass, barley, sponges, dates, fish (especially tunny), hides, horses, wool, phosphates, copper, zinc and lead.
The presence of phosphates accounts for the fertility of a shallow soil.
The prosperity of the town is largely due to the export trade in phosphates, esparto grass, oil, almonds, pistachio nuts, sponges, wool, &c. There is in the Gulf of Gabes a rise and fall of 5 ft.
The Devonian system yields much oil and gas in western Pennsylvania, south-western New York, West Virginia and Ontario; and some of the Devonian beds in Tennessee yield phosphates of commercial value.
It is a business centre for the prosperous farming region by which it is surrounded, and is a shipping point for oysters and fish; among its manufactures are canned fruits and vegetables, flour, hominy, phosphates, underwear and lumber.
The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first instance; it has trade in phosphates, of which there are workings in the vicinity, and carries on cotton-spinning and the manufacture of leather, paper and sugar.
Other phosphates are also known.
PHOSPHATES, in chemistry, the name given to salts of phosphoric acid.
The ultimate source of these mineral phosphates may be referred in most cases to the apatite widely distributed in crystalline rocks.
Being soluble in water containing carbonic acid or organic acids it may be readily removed in solution, and may thus furnish plants and animals with the phosphates required in their structures.
On the decay of these structures the phosphates are returned to the inorganic world, thus completing the cycle.
There are three sources of phosphates which are of importance geologically.
The phosphatic rocks which occur among the sedimentary strata are the principal sources of phosphates for commerce and agriculture.