Perhaps the most interesting of these consonantal interchanges is that occurring between n and the sibilants sh and z; ner = slier; na=za, which by some scholars has been declared to be phonetically impossible, but its existence is well established between the modern Chinese colloquial idioms. For example, Pekingese then, Hakka nyin, Fuchow niing, Ningpo zhing and nying, WOnchow zang and Hang all =" man."
Names in languages not using the Roman alphabet, or having 'no written alphabet should be spelt phonetically, as pronounced on the spot.
Similarly the word for " clothing " may be written SIG-BA, which represents again the " Sumerian " word, whereas, the BabylonianAssyrian equivalent being lubushtu it is so to be read in Semitic texts, and may therefore be also phonetically written lu-bu-ush-tu.
Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the majority of the Babylonian-Assyrian proper names - we have variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or part in one instance and ideographically in another.
When inscriptions of a Semitic ruler of Kish, whose name was written Uru-mu-ush, were first deciphered, there was a disposition to regard this as an ideographic form and to read phonetically Alu-usharshid (" he founded a city," with the omission of the name of the deity), but scholarly opinion finally accepted Urumu-ush (Urumush) as the correct designation.
The Kojiki is written in the archaic form: that is to say, the language is the language of old Japan, the script, although ideographic, is used phonetically only, and the case-indicators are represented by Chinese characters having the samesounds.
How they conveyed their meaning, how far they pictorially represented ideas or spelt words in the different languages of the country, is a question not yet answered in a complete way; Landa's description (p. 320) gives a table of a number of their elements as phonetically representing letters or syllables, but, though there may be a partial truth in his rules, they are insufficient or too erroneous to serve for any general decipherment.
On the other hand, while phonetically the above explanation was not inconsistent with such cases as rka dkah, bkah, bska, and nga, rnga, ngag, sngags, lnga, ngad and brtse, brdzun, dbyar, &c., where the italicized letters are pronounced in full and the others are left aside, it failed to explain other cases, such as dgra, mgron, spyod, snyan, sbrang, sbrul, bkra, k'ri, krad, k'rims, k'rus, &c., pronounced da, don, cod, or swod, cen, Bang, deu, ta, t'i, tad or teh, tim, tu, &c., and many others, where the spoken forms are obviously the alteration by wear and tear of sounds originally similar to the written forms. Csoma de Koros, who was acquainted with the somewhat archaic sounds of Ladak, was able to point to only a few letters as silent.
The jackal stands for Anup, the hawk for Har, the frog for Hekt, the baboon for Tahuti, and Ptah, Asiri, Hesi, Nebhat, Hat-hor, Neit, Khnum and Amun-hor are all written out phonetically, but never represented in pictures.
According to the developed cuneiform system of writing, words may be written by means of a sign (or combination of signs) expressive of the entire word, or they may be spelled out phonetically in syllables.