Sayce's phonetic values and interpretations of determinatives are his best assured achievements.
Save for the consequences of these phonetic changes, Umbrian morphology and syntax exhibit no divergence from Oscan that need be mentioned here, save perhaps two peculiar perfect-formations with -1- and -nci-; as in ampelust, fut.
The remaining consonants have the same phonetic values as in English.
The old South Arabian phonetic equivalent `Athtar is, however, a male deity.
This difference is marked in the phonetic differentiation of the dental and the alveolar t by writing them respectively t and t.
A characteristic phonetic change is that of into sh; e.g.
Aramaic endorsements on business documents repeating in Aramaic transliteration the names of parties mentioned in the texts have also been of service in fixing the phonetic readings of names.
At times too a doubt may exist in regard to a name whose bearer was a Semite, whether the signs composing his name represent a phonetic reading or an ideographic compound.
Conder (based largely on Cypriote comparisons and phonetic values transferred from these) and C. J.
Phonetic values known, Assyrian was found to be a Semitic language cognate to Hebrew.
The phonetic designation is uncertain - perhaps Annshit.
Unfortunately, the extant remains of Brythonic are scanty; but in the Roman period it borrowed a large number of Latin words, which, as we know their original forms, and as they underwent the same modifications as other words in the language, enable us to trace the phonetic changes by which Brythonic became Welsh.
The Umbrian-Sabellian tribes had the same phonetic peculiarity as the Celts.
To the Jesuit missionaries is due the introduction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of phonetic characters.
Until, therefore, through parallel passages or through explanatory lists prepared by the Babylonian and Assyrian scribes in large numbers as an aid for the study of the language, 5 the exact phonetic reading of these divine names was determined, scholars remained in doubt or had recourse to conjectural or provisional readings.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
A collection of all the phonetic elements exhausts the .standard alphabets and calls for new letters.
The analogy of this to the manner in which the Egyptian hieroglyphs passed into phonetic signs is remarkable, and writing might have been invented anew in Mexico had it not been for the Spanish conquest.
The vowels are a, i, u, e, o, which are not distinguished as long or short in writing, except in loan words transcribed from the Sanskrit, &c., though they are so in the vernaculars in the case of words altered by phonetic detrition.
The introduction of the important compensation of tones to balance phonetic losses had begun several centuries before, as appears from a Tibetan MS. (No.
Thus the word ag = the sign RAM = rdmu, " love " (proper meaning) is associated with ramdmu, " to roar," for phonetic reasons only.
The existence and general phonetic character of the " woman's language " were first pointed out by Professor Paul Haupt, 5 R.
Who cited, for example, the following very common interdialectic variations: Eme-ku gir=Eme-sal meri, " foot "; Eme-ku ner =Eme-sal sher, " ruler "; Eme-ku duga=Eme-sal zeba, " knee," &c. Such phonetic and dialectic changes, so different from any of the Semitic linguistic phenomena, are all the more valuable because they are set before us only by means of Semitic equivalents.
According to the system of phonetic changes generally known as "Grimm's law," an original b appears in English as p, an original bh as b.
Thence the difficulty of substituting our phonetic alphabet for the ideographic characters of the Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic writing partly borrowed by the Annamese from the letters of the celestial empire.
Ninib, the phonetic reading of which is still unknown or uncertain.
Certain classes of names being explained in this way, legitimate and fairly reliable conclusions can be drawn for many others belonging to the same class or group. The proper names of the numerous business documents of the Khammurabi period, when phonetic writing was the fashion, have been of special value in resolving doubts as to the correct reading of names written ideographically.
Working with some inscriptions from Persepolis which were found to contain references to Darius and Xerxes, Grotefend had established the phonetic values of certain of the Persian characters, and his successors were perfecting the discovery just about the time when the new Assyrian finds were made.
Brinton, The American Race (New York, 1891) and Ancient Phonetic Alphabets of Yucatan; Desire Charnay, The Ancient Cities of the New World (Transl.
In the case of texts from the oldest historical periods we encounter hundreds of names that are genuinely Sumerian, and here in view of the multiplicity of the phonetic values attaching to the signs used it is frequently difficult definitely to determine the reading of the names.
These are (1) the origin of the cuneiform signs, (2) the etymology of the phonetic values, and (3) the elucidation of the many and varied primitive sign-meanings.
Sumerian presents a significant list of internal phonetic variations which would not have been possible in an arbitrarily invented language.
- Spelling of words purely in phonetic or even alphabetic characters is not uncommon, the determinative being generally added.
A great advance was therefore made when several homophones were introduced into the alphabet in the Middle and New Kingdoms, partly as the result of the wearing away of old phonetic distinctions, ~iving the choice between ..-.
W~c1-sign - Phonetic, ~) child hrd (khrod)
The Swedish princes Eadgils, son of Ohthere, and Onela, who are mentioned in Beowulf, are in the Icelandic Heimskringla called Adils son of Ottarr, and Ali; the correspondence of the names, according to the phonetic laws of Old English and Old Norse, being strictly normal.
King of the country E."), Sayce distributed phonetic values, corresponding to the syllables of the two proper names, among four of the Hittite characters, reserving two as " ideograms " of " king " and " country " and launched into the field of decipherment.
Potent, however, as such a vehicle is for expressing thought, its ideographic script constitutes a great obstacle to general acquisition, and the Japanese soon applied themselves to minimizing the difficulty by substituting a phonetic system.
But while every one appreciates the magnitude of the relief that would thus be afforded, there has as yet been little substantial progress A language which has been adapted from its infancy to ideographi transmission cannot easily be fitted to phonetic uses.
There was a further complication in that each one of these characters had at least two different phonetic values; and there were other intricacies of usage which, had they been foreknown by inquirers in the middle of the 19th century, might well have made the problem of decipherment seem an utterly hopeless one.
Assuming, then, that the proper names found in the Persian portion of the Behistun inscription occurred also in the Assyrian portion, retaining virtually the same sound in each, a clue to the phonetic values of a large number of the Assyrian characters was obviously at hand.
Gods are represented with their appropriate attributes - the fire-god hurling his spear, the moon-goddess with a shell, &c.; the scenes of human life are pictures of warriors fighting with club and spear, men paddling in canoes, women spinning and weaving, &c. An important step towards phonetic writing appears in the picture-names of places and persons.
2 It is significant that all phonetic and grammatical work in Sumerian tends to confirm nearly every one of Haupt's views.
The phonetic values of the signs are derived from their word-sign values and consist usually of the bare root, though there are rare examples of the retention of a flexional ending; they often ignore also the weaker consonants of the root, and on the same principle reduce a repeated consonant to a single one, as when the hoe ~, tinn, has the phonetic value bn.
The history of some of the alphabetic signs is still very obscure but a sufficient number of them have been explained to make it nearly certain that the values of all were obtained on the same principles.i Some of the ancient words from which the phonetic values were derived probably fell very early into disuse, and may, never be discoverable in the texts that have come down to us.
Further, owing to the vast number of signs employed, to prevent confusion of one with another in rapid writing they were generally provided with phonetic complements, a group being less easily misread than a single letter.
Biliteral phonograms are very rare as phonetic complements, nor are two biliteral phonograms employed together in writing the radicals of a word.
Some phonetic characteristics of the dialect may be regarded as quite certain; (I) the change of the original short o to a (as in the last syllable of the genitive kalatoras); (2) of final -m to -n (as in g ran); (3) of -ni- -ti- -si- respectively to -nn- -to- and -ss- as in dazohonnes " Dasonius," dazohonnihi " Dasonii"; dazetOes, gen.
Hempl's initiative was followed by Professor Gundermann of Giessen, who announced in November 1897' that he had discovered the source of the runic alphabet, the introduction of which he declares preceded the first of the phonetic changes known as the " Teutonic sound-shifting," since < = g is used for k, X = x for g, a Theta-like symbol for d, while zd is used for st.
The forms of the Danish king's name given by the Frankish historians are corruptions of the name of which the primitive Germanic form was Hugilaikaz, and which by regular phonetic change became in Old English Hygelac, and in Old Norse Hugleikr.
Whole strophes of the m Lths can be turned into good old Sanskrit by the application of Ia rtain phonetic laws; for example as mat vo padaish y frasrfltk izhayao F pairijasai mazda ustnazast, as at vo ash aredrahyaca nemangha at vo vangehush mananghO hunarett, ~comes in Sanskrit mana vah padaih y pracruta ihayh it parigachai medha uttanahastah at va rtena radhrasyaca namasg m at v vasor manasah sun~-tayA.
Ira The phonetic system of Zend consists of simple signs which Ca press the different shades of sound in the language with great Pe ecision.
The phonetic system in Old Persian is much simpler than in nd; we reckon twenty-four letters in all.
Yet, even in those days, the Babylonian syllabary continued to be a mixture of ideographic and phonetic writing.
This mysterious language, despite the existence of more than 6000 inscriptions, and the publication in 1892 of a book written in the language and handed down to us by the accident of its use to pack an Egyptian mummy, remains as obscure as ever, but apparently it underwent very great phonetic changes at an early period, so that the voiced mutes B, D, G disappeared.
The Latin alphabet is used, with special signs to represent sounds borrowed from Slavonic, &c. All the unaccented vowels except e are pronounced as in Italian; e has the same phonetic value as in Old Slavonic (=French e) and is often similarly preiotized (= ye in yet), notably at the beginning of all words except neologisms. The accented vowels é and ó are pronounced as ea and oa (petra, rock, = peatra; morte, death, = moarte); they are written in full, as diphthongs, at the end of a word and sometimes in other positions.