Especially famous have been the Jewish linguists, pre-eminent among them Theodor Benfey (1809-1881), the pioneer of modern comparative philology; and the Greek scholar and critic Jakob Bernays (1824-1881).
Of his numerous publications the following are of special importance: - Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872); Principles of Comparative Philology (1874); Babylonian Literature (1877); Introduction to the Science of Language (1879); Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus i.-iii.
Having studied classical philology at the university of Giessen, he was appointed (1803) master in the high school, an office which he combined with that of lecturer at the university.
On the whole, greater weight is due to the evidence from botanical sources than to that derived from philology, particularly since the discovery both of the wild almond and of a form like a wild peach in Afghanistan.
In 1600 he was made rector of the high school at Dort, and devoted himself to philology and historical theology.
Ritschl's recommendation, appointed to an extraordinary professorship of classical philology in the university of Basel, and rapidly promoted to an ordinary professorship. Here he almost immediately began a brilliant literary activity, which gradually assumed a more and more philosophical character.
In 1843 he was appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.
From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
See Whitney's article Philology in the present edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Stich in the Teubner series (Leipzig, 1882; 2nd ed., 1903); textual emendations also in Journal of Philology, xxiii.
Having studied at Marburg and Jena, he for some time lived at Leipzig as a private tutor; but in 1802 he was appointed professor at Marburg, and two years later professor of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg.
Neilson in The Journal of Germanic Philology (iv.), the note by W.
The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.
Studying philology at Heidelberg in 1835, he was led by F.
He was a member of the Old Testament Revision Company in 1874-1884; deputy professor of comparative philology in Oxford 1876-1890; Hibbert Lecturer 1887; Gifford Lecturer 1900-1902.
He then turned his attention to philology, producing a new edition of the Remarques of C. F.
Ellis in Journal of Philology, viii., 1879).
Francke's Collegium orientale theologicum, a practical school of biblical and oriental philology then quite unique, and the author of an annotated Hebrew Bible and various exegetical works of reputation, especially the Adnotationes uberiores in hagiographos (1720).
In 1846 Riemann entered himself as a student of philology and theology in the university of GÃ¶ttingen.
In 1783 he entered the university of Freiburg, where he became a pupil in the seminary for the training of priests, and soon distinguished himself in classical and Oriental philology as well as in biblical exegesis and criticism.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.
His favourite studies were philology and philosophy; he became an ardent Hegelian.
Dempster owed his great position in the history of scholarship to his extraordinary memory, and to the versatility which made him equally at home in philology, criticism, law, biography and history.
Hitherto he had written only on law, history and philology, although in a Latin controversy with the jurist Andreas Hojer of Flensborg his satirical genius had flashed out.
He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.
A few names were, however, distinguished in 1711 theology, philology and poetry.
Resigning in 1882 owing to conscientious scruples, he became professor extraordinarius of oriental languages in the faculty of philology at Halle, was elected professor ordinarius at Marburg in 1885, and was transferred to Gottingen in 1892.
Of Philology, xxvi.
In Journal of Philology (1868) and Correspondence of Fronto and M.
In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University.
To Gesenius belongs in a large measure the credit of having freed Semitic philology from the trammels of theological and religious prepossession, and of inaugurating the strictly scientific (and comparative) method which has since been so fruitful.
Contribution to the comparative philology of the Semitic languages - Hebrew and Arabic, infi particular.
By his work on language Uber den Ursprung der Sprache (1772), Herder may be said to have laid the first rude foundations of the science of comparative philology and that deeper science of the ultimate nature and origin of language.
Among the most representative are: the Popular Science Monthly, New York; the monthly Boston Journal of Education; the quarterly American Journal of Mathematics, Baltimore; the monthly Cassier's Magazine (1891), New York; the monthly American Engineer (1893), New York; the monthly House and Garden, Philadelphia; the monthly Astrophysical Journal, commenced as Sidereal Messenger (1882), Chicago; the monthly American Chemical Journal, Baltimore; the monthly American Naturalist, Boston; the monthly American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Philadelphia; the monthly Outing, New York; the weekly American Agriculturist, New York; the quarterly Metaphysical Magazine (1895) New York; the bi-monthly American Journal of Sociology, Chicago; the bi-monthly American Law Review, St Louis; the monthly Banker's Magazine, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Philology (1880), Baltimore; the monthly Library Journal (1876), New York; the monthly Public Libraries, Chicago; Harper's.
Philology.-L'Annee linguistique (1901-1902); Bulletin de la societe des parlers de France (1893); Bulletin des humanites francais (1894); Bulletin hispanique (1899); Bulletin italien (1901); Lou-Gai-SabeAntoulongio prouvencalo (1905); Le Maitre phonetique (1886); Le Moyen Age (1888); Revue de la renaissance (1901); Revue de metrique et de versification (1894-1895); Revue des etudes grecques (1888); Revue des etudes rabelaisiennes (1903); Revue des parlers populaires (1902); Revue des patois (1887); Revue hispanique (1894); Revue celtique, quarterly; Revue de philologie francaise et de litterature.
Historical journalism was first represented by Electa juris publici (1709), philology by Neue acerra philologica (1715-1723), philosophy by the Ada philosophorum (1715-1727), medicine by Der patriotische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728).
The chief of these are: Bibliography and Librarianship: Bibliographie des Buch- and Bibliothekswesens (1905); Chemistry: Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der Chemie (1847); Classical Archaeology and Philology: Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (1873); Education: Jahrbuch der peidagogischen Literatur (1901); Geography: Geographisches Jahrbuch (1874); Bibliotheca geographica (1891); History: Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft (1878); Fine Arts: Internationale Bibliographie der Kunstwissenschaft (1902); Law and Political Economy: Uebersicht der gesamten staatsand rechtswissenschaftlichen Literatur (1868); Jurisprudentia Germaniae (1905); Bibliographic des birgerlichen Rechts (1888); Bibliographie der Sozialwissenschaften (1905); Bibliographic fur Sozialand Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1903); Bibliographic fur Volkswirtschaftslehre and Rechtswissenschaft (1906); Literature and Languages: Bibliographic der vergleichenden Literaturgeschichte (1903); Jahresberichte fiir neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte (1890); Jahresbericht fiber die Erscheinungen auf dem Gebiete der germanischen Philologie (1879); Uebersicht fiber die auf dem Gebiete der englischen Philologie erschienenen Bucher, Schriften, and Aufseitze (1878); Kritischer Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der romanischen Philologie (1875); Bibliographie fur romanische Philologie-Supl.
Philology: Bollettino di filologia classica (1894); Giornale italiano di filologia e linguistica classica (1886); Studi di filologia romanza (1885); Studi italiani di filologia classica (1893); Bessarione, bi-monthly.
Current periodicals are Hollandsche revue, monthly; De Gids (1837), monthly; De nieuwe Gids (1886), monthly; De Architect, bi-monthly; Caecilia (for music); Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht; Museum, for philology (1893), monthly; Tijdschrift voor nederlandsche taal en letterkunde; Nederlandsch Archievenblad; De Paleograaf; Elseviers geillustreerd Maandschrift, monthly; Groot Nederland, monthly.
The strife, which reflects the controversy between the "analogists" and the "anomalists" in philology, continued long after their death.
Passing to the university of Gottingen he took his degree in classical philology and ancient history, but the bent of his mind was definitely towards the philosophical side of theology.
He studied philology and theology in Berlin and Breslau.
Munro, in the Journal of Philology, vii.
As a student he distinguished himself in philosophy and in philology, and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of Judaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which was afterwards published in 1833 under the title Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judentum aufgenommen?
Other institutional investigations have been prosecuted, the result of all which will be an intelligent comprehension of the philology of a primitive race.
The foundation of Arabic philology, however, was laid not by him but by De Sacy.
His published works include Lectures on Welsh Philology (1877); Celtic Britain (1882, last ed.
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
His voluminous writings in philology, natural history, physics and mathematics often accordingly have a good deal of the historical interest which attaches to pioneering work, however imperfectly performed; otherwise they now take rank as curiosities of literature merely.
There he busied himself with philology, and published notably some works on the Basque language: Grammaire basque, Remarques sur plusieurs assertions concernant la langue basque (1876), Observations sur le basque Fontarabie (1878).
After a brief stay in the grammar school of Colmar he went to Strassburg in 1651, where he devoted himself to the study of philology, history and philosophy, and won his degree of master (1653) by a disputation against the philosophy of Hobbes.
He then became private tutor to the princes Christian and Charles of the Palatinate, and lectured in the university on philology and history.
In 1843 he founded the Jahrbilcher der Gegenwart, and became Privatdozent of philosophy and classical philology in Tubingen university.
A valuable worker in the field of Slavonic philology was Linde, the author of an excellent Polish dictionary in six volumes.
For a long time the cultivation of Polish philology was in a low state, owing to the prevalence of Latin in the 17th century and French in the 18th.
One of the most active writers on Polish philology and literature is Wladyslaw Nehring, whose numerous contributions to the Archiv fiir slavische Philologie of Professor Jagic entitle him to the gratitude of all who have devoted themselves to Slavonic studies.
Young Dbllinger was first educated in the gymnasium at Wiirzburg, and then began to study natural philosophy at the university in that city, where his father now held a professorship. In 1817 he began the study of mental philosophy and philology, and in 1818 turned to the study of theology, which he believed to lie beneath every other science.
During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style.
Another great service to English philology was rendered by his paper, read before the Philological Society, "On some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries" (1857), which gave the first impulse to the great Oxford New EnglishDictionary.
Rohde; and comparative philology by F.
- On the Prytaneum as the centre of an ancient state see article Fire, and references in a paper (s.v.) by Frazer (Journal of Philology, 1885, xiv.