Samuel's great defeat of the Philistines leads to " peace between Israel and the Amorites " (I Sam.
External danger from a foreign foe, such as Midian or the Philistines, at once brought into prominence the claim and power of Yahweh, Israel's national war-god since the great days of the exodus.
It was the religious expression of the unity of Israel which the life and death struggle with the Philistines had gradually wrought out.
The lifeand-death struggle between Israel and the Philistines in the reign of Saul called forth under Samuel's leadership a new order of " men of God," who were called " prophets " or divinely inspired speakers.'
It is significant that Saul in his last unavailing struggle against the overwhelming forces of the Philistines sought through the medium of a sorceress for an interview with the deceased prophet Samuel.
Thus He not only brought the Israelites out of Egypt, but also the Philistines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kir (ix.
(I) The Philistines, a foreign people whose presence in Palestine 2 The story of Joseph has distinctive internal features of its own, and appears to be from an independent cycle, which has been used to form a connecting link between the Settlement and the Exodus; see also Ed.
Yet again, Saul had been chosen by Yahweh to free his people from the Philistines; he had been rejected for his sins, and had suffered continuously from this enemy; Israel at his death was left in the unhappy state in which he had found it; it was the Judaean David, the faithful servant of Yahweh, who was now chosen to deliver Israel, and to the last the people gratefully remembered their debt.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
Meanwhile the Israelite army was again besieging the Philistines at Gibbethon, and the recurrence of these conflicts points to a critical situation in a Danite locality in which Judah itself (although ignored by the writers), must have been vitally concerned.
I even record an invasion of Philistines and Arabians (?
Continued intercourse between Egypt, Gaza and north Arabia is natural in view of the trade-routes which connected them, and on several occasions joint action on the part of Edomites (with allied tribes) and the Philistines is recorded, or may be inferred.
He does not follow his master to the field against the Philistines; he is an obscure untried shepherd lad sent by his father with supplies for his brothers in the Israelite camp. He does not even present himself before the king, and his brothers treat him with a petulance hardly conceivable if he stood well at court, and it 1 But four in xvii.
Deprived of the protection of religion as well as of justice, David tried his fortune among the Philistines at Gath.
4 The passage anticipates chap. xxvii., and it is hardly probable that the slayer of Goliath or of any other Philistine giant fled to the Philistines with their dead hero's sword.
He was even able to strike at the Philistines, and to rescue Keilah (south of Adullam and to the east of Beit Jibrin) from their attack The close of ver.
Here he occupied himself in chastening the Amalekites and other robber tribes who made raids on Judah and the Philistines without distinction (xxvii.).
If this were an attempt to steer a middle course his true actions could not have been kept secret long, and as it is implied that the Philistines subsequently acquiesced in David's sovereignty in Hebron, it is not easy to see what interest they had in embroiling him with the men of Judah.
The Philistines for once directed their forces towards the plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon) in the north; and Saul, forsaken by Yahweh, already gave himself up for lost.
But his presence was not observed until they reached their destination, when the jealousy of the Philistines overrode his protestations of fidelity and he was ordered to return.
The Philistines took possession of the fertile lowlands of Jezreel and the Jordan, and the shattered forces of Israel were slowly rallied by Abner in the remote city of Mahanaim in Gilead, under the nominal sovereignty of Saul's son Ishbaal.
The interest of the narratives is now directed away from the Philistines to the decaying fortunes of Saul's house.
David's friendly relations with the Philistines find a parallel in Isaac's covenant with Abimelech.
We hear of two great battles with the " Philistines " in the valley of Rephaim, near Jerusalem, at a time when David's base was Adullam (v.
In yet another incident the Philistines maintained a garrison in Bethlehem, and David expressed a wish for a drink from its well.
I) it seems that the Philistines were at length vanquished, and the unknown Metheg-Ammah taken out of their hands.
Meanwhile the ark of Yahweh, the only sanctuary of national significance, had remained in obscurity since its return from the Philistines in the early youth of Samuel.
After the defeat of the Philistines came the turn of Moab.
She had temples at Sidon and at Tyre (whence her worship was transplanted to Carthage), and the Philistines probably venerated her at Ascalon (I Sam.
21), which we may identify with the memorable victory of David over the Philistines recorded in 2 Sam.
Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.
After a great defeat of Israel by the Philistines it was brought into the field, but was captured by the enemy.
After taking counsel the Philistines placed the ark with a votive offering upon a new cart drawn by two cows.
Those, however, who place our prophet in the minority of King Joash draw a special argument from the mention of Phoenicians, Philistines and Edomites (iii.
20) and the incursion of the Philistines in the same reign (2 Chron.
As regards the Philistines, it is impossible to lay much weight on the statement of Chronicles, unsupported as it is by the older history, and in Joel the Philistines plainly stand in one category with the Phoenicians, as slave dealers, not as armed foes.
In the time of Amos the slaves collected by Philistines and Tyr'ans were sold en masse to Edom, and presumably went to Egypt or Arabia,.
Abimelech is called "king of the Philistines," but the title is clearly an anachronism.
20: "All the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen every man his share and his coulter."
The historical interest of Michmash is connected with the strategical importance of the position, commanding the north side of the Pass of Michmash, which made it the headquarters of the Philistines and the centre of their forays in their attempt to quell the first rising under Saul, as it was also at a later date the headquarters of Jonathan the Hasinonaean (1 Macc. ix.
This little plateau, about a mile east of the present village of Mukhmas, seems to have been the post of the Philistines, lying close to the centre of the insurrection, yet possessing unusually good communication with their establishments on Mount Ephraim by way of Ai and Bethel, and at the same time commanding the routes leading down to the Jordan from Ai and from Michmash itself.
The Philistines are defeated at Ebenezer (near Mizpah) through the direct interposition of Yahweh, and Samuel rules peacefully as a theocratic judge (vii).
But, according to an earlier account, instead of a state of peace after the defeat of the Philistines (vii.
Despite the straitened circumstances of Israel, an army is mustered, a sudden blow is struck at the Philistines, and, as before, supernatural assistance is at hand.
As one of the five chief cities of the Philistines and the seat of the worship of Dagon (1 Sam.
PHILISTINES, 1 the general name for the people of Philistia (Ass.
That some definite political changes ensued in this age have been inferred on other grounds, and the identification of the Purasati with the Philistines may permit the assumption that the latter succeeded in occupying the district with which they have always been associated.
- Biblical tradition, too, has recognized the Philistines as immigrants from Caphtor (Amos ix.
It is necessary to realize Gaza's position and its links with trading centres, since conditions in the comparatively small and halfdesert land of Judah depended essentially upon its relations with the Edomites and Arabian tribes on the south-east and with the Philistines on the west.
3 Jehoshaphat's supremacy over Philistines and Arabians (2 Chron.
The book of Chronicles mentions Philistines and Arabians, and knows of a previous warning by a prophet of Mareshah (east of Lachish; 2 Chron.
6), and the Philistines attacked Beth-shemesh, Aijalon, Timnath, &c. (2 Chron.
Between the central Judaean plateau and the latter lay the " lowlands (Shephelah), a district open equally to Judaeans and Philistines alike.
Nehemiah speaks not of Philistines, but of Ashdodites (iv.
The Philistines naturally had a prominent place in popular tradition, and the story of Isaac and the Philistine Abimelech (Gen.
The Philistines themselves are called the remnant of the Anakim (Jer.
14); and the migration of the Danites is placed after Samson's conflicts with the Philistines (Judges xviii.