Philips Austrian successors reduced it to the rank of a secondary European power.
Philips Van Marnix, Heer Van St Aldegonde >>
PHILIPS VAN MARNIX, HEER VAN ST ALDEGONDE (1538-1598), Dutch writer and statesman, was born at Brussels, the son of Jacob van Marnix, baron of Pottes.
Quinet, Marnix de St Aldegonde (Paris, 1854); Juste, Vie de Marnix (The Hague, 1858); Fredericq, Marnix en zijne nederlandsche geschriften (Ghent, 1882); Tjalma, Philips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde (Amsterdam, 1896).
In consequence, together with Pym and Sir Robert Philips, he was thrown into confinement; and, when in the August of the next year he was released, he was commanded to remain in his house at Stoke Poges during his Majesty's pleasure.
Philips supporters were the nobles of southern and eastern Germany, while a few cities in the west owned his authority; Ottos friends were found mainly in the north and the north-west of the country.
The number of available warriors was increased by the return of many crusaders, among them being the famous soldier, Henry von Kalden, who was mainly responsible for the success of Philips cause in 1199.
But unfortunately for Germany the papal chair at this time was occupied by Innocent III., a pope who emulated Hildebrand in ambition and in statesmanship. At first vacillating, but by no means indifferent, Innocent was spurred to action when a number of princes met at Spires in May 1200, declared Philip to be the lawful king, and denied the right of the pope to interfere, lie was also annoyed by Philips attitude with regard to a vacancy in the archbishopric of Cologne, and in March 1201 he declared definitely for Otto.
From 1204 onwards, however, fortune again veered round, and Philips prospects began to improve.
Deserted by Ottakar and even by Adolph of Cologne and his own brother Henry, count palatine of the Rhine, Otto was forced to take refuge in Brunswick, his last line of defence, and was only saved by Philips murder, which occurred at Bamberg in June 1208.
Godwin's more important works are - The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness (1793); Things as they are, or the Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794); The Inquirer, a series of Essays (1797); Memoirs of the Author of the Rights of Woman (1798); St Leon, a Tale of the Sixteenth Century (1799); Antonio, a Tragedy (1800); The Life of Chaucer (1803); Fleetwood, a Novel (1805); Faulkner, a Tragedy (1807); Essay on Sepulchres (1809); Lives of Edward and John Philips, the Nephews of Milton (1815); Mandeville, a Tale of the Times of Cromwell (1817); Of Population, an answer to Malthus (1820); History of the Commonwealth (1824-1828); Cloudesley, a Novel (1830); Thoughts on Man, a series of Essays (1831); Lives of the Necromancers (1834).
And, after summoning Bath in vain, Monmouth, with a disordered force, began his retrograde march through Philips Norton and Frome, continually harassed by Feversham's soldiers.
But Philips assassination in 336 fundamentally altered the situation.
During the age of Anne various Augustan poets in whom the lyrical faculty was slight, from Congreve and Richard Duke down to Ambrose Philips and William Somerville, essayed the epistle with more or less success, and it was employed by Gay for several exercises in his elegant persiflage.
At the same time King Philips invasion of Normandy was repulsed by the barons of the duchy.
As it was, the Spanish connection checked Englands aspirations; her adventurers were warned off the Spanish Main, and even trade with the colonies of Philips ally Portugal was prohibited.
They had to content themselves with the Arctic Ocean and Muscovy; and they soon found themselves at war in Philips interests.
Elizabeth was glad of Philips support at the negotiations for peace at Cateau Cambrsis (I 559), but she took care to assert the independence of her diplomacy and of Englands interests.
But more important was Philips acquisition of the throne of Portugal with its harbours, its colonies and its marine.
But Philips mind moved slowly and only on provocation.
Of Scotland had not been successful, and events in the Netherlands and in France disturbed Philips calculations.
It also removed Philips last doubts; Mary had left him her claims to the English throne, and he might, now that she was out of his path, hope to treat England like Portugal.
Drakes singeing of Philips beard in Cadiz harbour in 1587 delayed the expedition for a year, and a storm again postponed it in the early summer of 1588.
Scarcely an English Catholic would have raised a finger in Philips favor; and when he could not subdue the two provinces of Holland and Zeeland, it is absurd to suppose that he could have simultaneously subdued them and England as well.
A few half-hearted campaigns against recalcitrant vassals and a long and obstinate quarrel with the papacy over his adulterous union with Bertrade de Montfort, countess of Anjou, represented the total activity of Philips reign; he was greedy and venal, by no means disdaining the petty profits of brigandage, and he never left his own domains.
King of England, Richard Cc~ur de Lion, as powerful, AnguStuS besides being younger and more energetic. Philips and ambition could not rest satisfied with the petty Richard principalities of Amiens, Vermandois and Valois, ~~ur do which he had added to the royal demesne.
The third crusade, undertaken, sorely against Philips will, in alliance with Richard, only increased the latent hostility between the two kings; and in 1191 Philip abandoned the enterprise in order to return to France and try to plunder his absent rival.
Philips divorce from Ingeborg of Denmark, who appealed successfully to Pope Innocent III., merely delayed the inevitable conflict.
In Anjou, Touraine, Maine and Poitou, lords, towns and abbeys made their submission, won over by Philips bribes despite Pope Innocent III.s attempts at intervention.
Philips son was the first of the Capets who was not crowned during his fathers lifetime; a fact clearly showing that the principle of heredity had now been established beyond discussion.
Louis VIII.s short reign was but a prolongation of Philips in its realization of his two great designs: the recovery from 1.
Restored Guienne to Edward I., gave him the hand of Philips sister for himself and that of the kings daughter for his son (1298).
Philips double revenge, on sea at Zierikzee and on land at Mons-en-Pvle (1304), led to the signing of a treaty at Athis-surOrge (1305).
Philips marriage wIth Mary Tudor l3s6~i3~.
In his internal Philips government Philip was fully despotic. He made no aovernment.pretence of consulting the Cortes on legislation, and though he summoned them to vote new taxes he established the rule that the old were to be considered as granted for ever, and as constituting the fixed revenue of the Crown.
Philips marriage with Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry II.
The duke of Braganza, whose claims were better than Philips, was bought off by immense grants.