He was bitterly attacked by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) in the senate on the ist of September for not being present there, and on the next day replied in his First Philippic. He then left Rome and devoted himself to the completion of the de Qfficiis, and to the composition of his famous Second Philippic, which was never delivered, but was circulated, at first privately, after Antony's departure from Rome to Cisalpine Gaul on the 28th of November.
On the 2 ist, a few moments after the estates had assembled, the king in full regalia appeared, and taking his seat on the throne, delivered that famous philippic, one of the masterpieces of Swedish oratory, in which he reproached the estates for their unpatriotic venality and licence in the past.
"No stronger proof," says Mark Pattison, "can be given of the inpressions produced by this powerful philippic, dedicated to the defamation of an individual, than that it has been the source from which the biography of Scaliger, as it now stands in our biographical collections, has mainly flowed."
The First Philippic of Demosthenes was spoken in 35 1 B.C. The Third Philippic - the latest of the extant political speeches - was spoken in 341 B.C. Between these he delivered eight political orations, of which seven are directly concerned with Philip. The whole series falls into two great divisions.
The First Philippic, spoken early in 351 B.C., was no sudden note of alarm drawing attention to an unnoticed peril.
For First six years the war with Philip had been a theme of barren Philippic. talk.
The Third Philippic surveys a wider horizon.
The speech against Boeotus "Concerning the Name" comes between the First Philippic and the First Olynthiac. The speech against Pantaenetus comes between the speech "On the Peace" and the Second Philippic.
The speech "On the Affairs of the Chersonese" and the Third Philippic were the crowning efforts of Demosthenes.
A comparison of this MS. with the extracts of Aelius, Aristeides and Harpocration from the Third Philippic favours the view that it is derived from an 'ATTCKCavov, whereas the S7/µc'05ECS iKSoo€is, used by Hermogenes and by the rhetoricians generally, have been the chief sources of our other manuscripts.
Second Philippic Or.
The Second Philippic also was not delivered but issued as a pamphlet.
15, Pro Caecina 27, Philippic H.
Such are the First Philippic and the three orations for Olynthus.
Demosthenes replied in the Second Philippic. "If," he said, "Philip is the friend of Greece, we are doing /ipdic wrong.
First Philippic. Or.