The Pharsalia of Lucan (39-65), with Cato as its hero, is essentially a Stoic manifesto of the opposition.
This era was established to commemorate the victory obtained by Julius Caesar on the plains of Pharsalia, on the 9th of August in the year 48 B.C., and the 706th of Rome.
/n==Authorities== - The principal ancient authorities for the life of Caesar are his own Commentaries, the biographies of Plutarch and Suetonius, letters and speeches of Cicero, the Catiline of Sallust, the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the histories of Appian, Dio Cassius and Velleius Paterculus (that of Livy exists only in the Epitome).
Settegast, Halle, 1881) based on the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the commentaries of Caesar (on the Civil War) and his continuators (on the Alexandrine, African and Spanish wars).
For services rendered to Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia, he was again rewarded with the sovereignty (Iwo-Tao-la Tou EBvovs, Jos.
Like the younger Cato its members kept up the old Roman fashion of dispensing with the tunic and leaving the arms bare (Horace, Ars Poetica, 50; Lucan, Pharsalia, ii.
Nevertheless he proceeded to Epirus before the battle of Pharsalia, and awaited the result at Dyrrachium in the company of Cicero and Cato.
See Pseudo-Oppius, Bellum hispaniense, 1-39; Lucan, Pharsalia, ix.
After the battle of Pharsalia Caesar made him procurator and a Roman citizen.
But his most important work in the department of pure literature was his translation (1627) into heroic couplets of the Pharsalia of Lucan.
14) he praises highly his accuracy in matters of chronology; and Cicero's younger contemporary, Marcus Brutus, was a devoted student of Polybius, and was engaged on the eve of the battle of Pharsalia in compiling an epitome of his histories (Suidas, s.v.; Plutarch, Brut.
Norse versions of Mary of Brittany's Lays, the stories of Brutus and of Troy, and part of the Pharsalia translated are also found.
To the north-east of this, where a portion of the great plain begins to run up into the mountains, the Plain of Pharsalia is formed, which is intersected by the river Enipeus; and still farther in the same direction is the scene of another great battle, Cynoscephalae.