The University of Washington (1862) at Seattle embraces a college of liberal arts, a college of engineering and schools of law, pharmacy, mines and forestry.
The "pale" and "light brown" oils are used in pharmacy; the "brown" oil, the cod oil of commerce, being obtained from putrid and decomposing livers, has an objectionable taste and odour and is largely employed by tanners.
It fuses at 339° to a colourless liquid, which solidifies on cooling to a white fibrous mass, known in pharmacy as sal prunelia.
This precipitate constitutes the "magistery of bismuth" or "subnitrate of bismuth" of pharmacy, and under the name of pearl white, blanc d'Espagne or blanc de fard has long been used as a cosmetic.
A school of pharmacy was instituted, and a museum and library were started.
The government also maintains schools of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, music, pharmacy, technology, and an admirable preparatory or high school, besides a large number of primary and secondary schools for which modern school buildings have been erected.
The most important educational institutions are the Birmingham medical college and college of pharmacy; the Birmingham dental college; a school of art and a conservatory of music. At East Lake station, in the north-east of the city, is Howard College (Baptist; founded at Marion, Perry county, in 1841 as an academy; granted first collegiate degrees in 1848; opened in East Lake in 1887); and 2 m.
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
PHARMACY, a term which in the original Greek form signified the use of any kind of drug (46p,uaKov), potion or spell, and hence also poison and witchcraft.
In China also at a very early period the art of pharmacy was practised.
They therefore resolved upon the foundation of a voluntary society, under the title of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, " for advancing the knowledge of chemistry and pharmacy, and promoting a uniform system of education for those who should practise the same, also for protecting the collective and individual interests and privileges of all its members, in the event of any hostile attack in parliament or elsewhere."
A subsequent pharmacy act, passed in 1868, added a register of chemists and druggists, and rendered it unlawful for any unregistered person to sell or keep open shop for selling the poisons mentioned in the schedule of this act.
To the university were added schools of pharmacy and of applied social science, and a department of religious education.
Either together or successively he held the offices of inspector of mines, professor at the School of Mines and at the Polytechnic School, assayer of gold and silver articles, professor of chemistry in the College de France and at the Jardin des Plantes, member of the Council of Industry and Commerce, commissioner on the pharmacy laws, and finally professor of chemistry to the Medical Faculty, to which he succeeded on Fourcroy's death in 1809.
In addition to these departments provided for in the organic act, the university included in 1909 colleges of dentistry (three-year course), pharmacy (two-year and three-year courses), a school of mines (1891; four-year course, leading to the degree of Engineer of Mines or Metallurgical Engineer), a school of analytical and applied chemistry (four-year courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor in Science in Chemistry, or in Chemical Engineering), a college of education (1906; three-year course, after two years of college work, leading to a Master's degree), a graduate school (with courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, of Science and of Laws, and of Doctor of Philosophy, of Science and of Civil Law), and a university summer school.
Many of the names and many forms of medi cines now used, and in fact the general outline of modern pharmacy, except so far as modified by modern chemistry, started with the Arabs.
He was equally skilful in pharmacy, but lowered his position by the practice, which would be unpardonable in a modern physician, of trafficking in secret remedies.
Having determined to make chemistry his profession, at the age of fifteen he entered the shop of an apothecary at Appenheim, near Darmstadt; -but he soon found how great is the difference between practical pharmacy and scientific chemistry, and the explosions and other incidents that accompanied his private efforts to increase his chemical knowledge disposed his master to view without regret his departure at the end of ten months.
Its educational establishments include faculties of law, of science and of letters, a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, a higher school of commerce, a school of fine art, a conservatoire of music, lycees and training colleges, and there is a public library with about 100,000 volumes.
The cubebs of pharmacy are produced by Piper Cubeba, a climbing woody shrub indigenous to south Borneo, Sumatra, Prince of Wales Island and Java.
The work of the faculties of medicine and pharmacy is in some measure shared by the icoles su~irieures de pharmacie (Paris, Montpellier, Nancy), which grant the highest degrees in pharmacy, and by the icoles de p1cm exercice de mdecine et de pharmacie (Marseilles, Rennes and Nantes) and the more numerous coles preparaloires de mdecine et de pharmacie; there are also coles preparatolres a lenseignement supirieur des sciences ci des lettres at Chambry, Rouen and Nantes.
The practice of pharmacy was extended by the Arabian physicians, and the separation of it from medicine was recognized in the 8th, and legalized in the i ith century.
In 1748 the Apothecaries' Corporation obtained a charter empowering them to license apothecaries to sell medicines in London, or within 7 m., and intended to use it to restrain chemists and druggists from practising pharmacy, and to prohibit physicians and surgeons from selling the medicines they prescribed; but the apothecaries, by paying increased attention to medical and surgical practice, had not only alienated the physicians and surgeons, but materially strengthened the position of chemists and druggists as dispensers of prescriptions.
When a further attempt was made in 1815 to bring a bill into parliament including provisions for prohibiting the practice of pharmacy by uneducated persons, and giving power to examine dispensing chemists, the latter became alarmed, and, finding that the provisions of the bill were entirely in the interests of the apothecaries, and directed against chemists and druggists, the latter took measures to oppose it in parliament, which were so far successful as to prevent apothecaries from interfering in' any way with, or obtaining any control over, chemists and druggists.
The chemists and druggists, recognizing that no institution for the systematic education and examination of chemists and druggists existed in England, and that no proof could be given that each individual possessed the necessary qualifications, decided that this objection must be met, and that pharmacy must be placed upon a more scientific footing.
Degrees in science and pharmacy are granted by the universities of Manchester and Glasgow, and other universities were in 1910 considering the question of granting degrees.
A pharmacy act, which was passed in 1852, established a distinction between registered and examined, and unregistered and unexamined chemists and druggists, creating a register of the former under the name of pharmaceutical chemists, so that the public might discriminate between the two classes.
The Poisons and Pharmacy Act of 1908 extended the schedule of poisons instituted by the act of 1868, and it now includes arsenic, aconite, aconitine and their preparations; all poisonous vegetable alkaloids, and their salts and poisonous derivatives; atropine and its salts and their preparations; belladonna and all preparations or admixtures (except belladonna plasters) containing 0.1% or more of belladonna alkaloid; cantharides and its poisonous derivatives; any preparation or admixture of coca-leaves containing 0.1% or more of coca alkaloids; corrosive sublimate; cyanide of potassium and all poisonous cyanides and their preparations; tartar emetic, nux vomica, and all preparations or admixtures containing 0.2% or more of strychnine; opium and all preparations and admixtures containing 1% or more of morphine; picro-toxine; prussic acid and all preparations and admixtures containing o i% or more of prussic acid; savin and its oil, and all preparations or admixtures containing savin or its oil.
The result of this decision was that any chemist who failed to pass the qualifying examination could constitute himself with a few others, even if ignorant of pharmacy, into a limited liability company, which would then have been outside the powers of the act, and not subject to its provisions.
His father, a poor peasant, managed to have him educated at the academy of Sens, and sent him at the age of sixteen to study pharmacy in Paris.
It includes colleges of arts, philosophy and science, of education (for teachers), of engineering, of law, of pharmacy, of agriculture and domestic science, and of veterinary medicine.
Marquette University was established in 1906 by a union of Marquette College (1881), a Roman Catholic school of high rank, and existing schools of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry and law; in 1908 it added a department of engineering, and in that year it had 81 instructors and 630 students.
ETHER, (C 2 H 5) 2 O, the Aether of pharmacy, a colourless, volatile, highly inflammable liquid, of specific gravity o 736 at 0°, boiling-point 35° C., and freezing-point 117 0.4 C. (K.
The development of organic chemistry from this time until almost the end of the 18th century was almost entirely confined to such compounds as had practical applications, especially in pharmacy and dyeing.
9), but this word, which is translated par fumeur in the French version, only indicates that the preparation of fragrant unguents and incense formed, even at that early date, a part of pharmacy, since the drugs mentioned, viz.
In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.
All preparations or admixtures which are not included in part 1 of the schedule, and contain a poison within the meaning of the pharmacy acts, except preparations or admixtures, the exclusion of which from this schedule is indicated by the words therein relating to carbolic acid, chloroform and coca, and except such substances as come within the provisions of section 5 of the act.
It also has lycees and training colleges for both sexes, ecclesiastical seminaries, a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, schools of architecture, music, commerce and industry, museums of art and antiquities and natural history and a library.