Before setting out, he quelled with the utmost cruelty a sedition of the Pharisees, slaying nearly 3000 of them.
The Pharisees were troublesome counsellors and doubtful allies for an ambitious prince.
But Salome Alexandra, his brother's widow, who released him from prison on the death of her husband and married him, was connected with the Pharisees through her brother Simon ben Shetach.
Eight hundred Jews who had held a fortress against him were crucified; 8000 Pharisees fled to Egypt and remained there.
According to the Talmud, he warned her " to fear neither the Pharisees nor their opponents but the hypocrites who do the deed of Zimri and claim the reward of Phinehas: " the warning indicates his justification of his policy in the matter of the crucifixions.
In any case the Pharisees were predominant under Alexandra, who became queen (78-69) under her husband's will.
Hyrcanus her elder son was only high priest, as the stricter Pharisees required.
Against their natural desire for revenge may be set the fact that the Pharisees did much to improve the status of women among the Jews.
In the midst of all this civil strife the Pharisees and all who were preoccupied with religion found it almost impossible to discern what they should do to please God.
The Pharisees, who regarded his rule as an inevitable penalty for the sins of the people, he encouraged.
How well their teaching served his purpose is shown by the sayings of two rabbis who, if not identical with these Pharisees, belong to their period and their party.
When all the Jewish people swore to be loyal to Caesar and the king's policy, the Pharisees - above 6000 - refused to swear.
When it came to the ears of the king he slew the most responsible of the Pharisees and every member of his household who accepted what the Pharisee said.
So far as this influence extended, the Jewish community was threatened with the danger of suicide, and the distinction drawn by Josephus between the Pharisees and the Zealots is a valid one.
So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.
Thenceforward the remnant of the Jews who survived the fiery ordeal formed a church rather than a nation or a state, and the Pharisees exercised an unchallenged supremacy.
With the Temple and its Sadducean high priests perished the Sanhedrin in which the Sadducees had competed with the Pharisees for predominance.
Under Johanan ben Zaccai the Pharisees established themselves at Jamnia.
16-18, be not over-righteous (over-attentive to details of ritual and convention) or over-wicked (flagrantly neglectful of established beliefs and customs); here "righteous" and "wicked" appear to be technical terms designating two parties in the Jewish world of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., the observers and the non-observers of the Jewish ritual law; these parties represent in a general way the Pharisees and the Sadducees; viii.
They " were written in Hebrew in the later years of John Hyrcanus - in all probability after his final victory over the Syrian power and before his breach with the Pharisees - in other words, between 109 and 106.
Our book had hardly been published, when Hyrcanus, owing to an injury done him by the Pharisees, broke with their party, and, joining the Sadducees, died a year or two later.
As it was written by a Pharisee, it could not have been composed after the breach arose between John Hyrcanus and the Pharisees towards the close of the 2nd century B.C. Thus the period of composition lies between 153, when Jonathan the Maccabee assumed the high-priesthood, and the year of the breach of John Hyrcanus with the Pharisees; some time, therefore, between 153 and 107.
There appears to have been a difference of practice between the Sadducees and the Pharisees on such occasions, the former keeping to the strict rules of the Law and sacrificing on the Friday, whereas the Pharisees did so on the Thursday.
Protestants have condemned these formulae as so much magic, and in this modern science tends to agree with them; but to orthodox Protestants at least Catholics have a perfect right to reply that, in taking this line, they are but repeating the accusation brought by the Pharisees against Christ, viz.
15 supports the view that proselytes were actively sought by the Pharisees, and the famous Didache was probably in the first instance a manual for instructing proselytes in the principles of Judaism.
But such literature was not confined to the members of these communities, but had been current among the Chasids and their successors the Pharisees.'
The Book of Jubilees was written in Hebrew by a Pharisee between the year of the accession of Hyrcanus to the high-priesthood in 135 and his breach with the Pharisees some years before his death in 105 B.C. Jubilees was translated into Greek and from Greek into Ethiopic and Latin.
A precocious student of the Law, he made trial of the three sects of Judaism - Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes - before he reached the age of nineteen.
II, &c. The former are the Pharisees; the latter the Sadducees.
HERESY, the English equivalent of the Greek word aipEVCs which is used in the Septuagint for "free choice," in later classical literature for a philosophical school or sect as "chosen" by those who belong to it, in Philo for religion, in Josephus for a religious party (the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Essenes).
As the haggada is the poetic, so the halakha is the legal element of the Talmud (q.v.), and arose out of the faction between the Sadducees, who disputed the traditions, and the Pharisees, who strove to prove their derivation from scripture.
Not a rough prophet in the desert like John, not a leader striking for political freedom, not a pretender aiming at the petty throne of the Herods, not even a great rabbi, building on the patriotic foundation of the Pharisees who had secured the national life by a new devotion to the ancient law.
PHARISEES, a sect of the Jews first mentioned by Josephus, in his account (Ant.
Consequently the Pharisees, who seem to have been an order of religious teachers, were concerned to make converts (proselytes), and some of their greatest teachers were of non-Jewish parentage.
This action of the Ilasidaeans is clearly the practical outcome of the principle which Josephus describes in the language of p.iilosophy as the characteristic of the Pharisees - "some things and not all are the work of Fate" (Ant.
Fate is the Stoic term for God; and these forerunners of the Pharisees judged that the time had come for them to take action rather than to wait passively on God.
But then and always the prime concern of the Pharisees was the extension of God's sovereignty (the Kingdom of God) throughout the world.
When Judas reconquered Jerusalem and re-dedicated the desecrated Temple, his work, from the Pharisees' point of view, was done.
When Alexandra came to the throne the Pharisees were the real rulers and imposed upon the people the deductions from the written Law which formed the growing body of their oral tradition.
70 - goes to show that the Pharisees moulded the religion of the people.
Attempts have been made in modern times to represent the Apocalyptists as opposed to the Pharisees and as occupying the position in popular estimation which Josephus ascribes to the Pharisees.
The Pharisees were occupied with the piecemeal realization of the dreams of their supposed opponents, which gain a vague glory from their being far off.