He was the greatest Pharaoh in the New Empire, if not in all Egyptian history.
Egypt was the vast estate of Pharaoh, and the vizier was the steward of it.
The Pharaoh is hostile, and Yahweh, the Israelite deity, is moved to send a deliverer; on the events that followed see Exodus, Book Of; Moses.
According to E, Moses with Aaron is to demand from Pharaoh the release of Israel, which will be effected in spite of his opposition; in assurance thereof the promise is given that they shall serve God upon this mountain; moreover, the people on their departure are to borrow raiment and jewels from their Egyptian neighbours.
Further speculation is caused when it is found that Solomon fortifies such cities as Megiddo, Beth-horon and Tamar, and that the Egyptian Pharaoh had slain the Canaanites of Gezer (ix.
The formula employed by P is "and Pharaoh's heart was strong (pin)," or, "and Pharaoh made strong (p'in) his heart," as in E, but it is distinguished from E's phrase by the addition of "and he hearkened not unto them as Yahweh had spoken."
Of his earlier life it was said that he was born in Egypt of Levite parents, and when the Pharaoh commanded that every new-born male child of the Hebrews should be killed, he was put into a chest and cast upon the Nile.
This did not save her from the Pharaoh, who took her into the royal harem and enriched Abram with herds and servants.
Lofty enclosure walls, Temples adorned with scenes from the victorious campaigns of the Pharaoh, shut off the sacred buildings from the surrounding streets.
The Judaeans made Jehoahaz (or Shallum) their king, but the Pharaoh banished him to Egypt three months later and appointed his brother Jehoiakim.
These books contain the great national epic of Judaism relating the deliverance of the people from bondage in Egypt, the overthrow of the pursuing Pharaoh and his army, the divinely guided wanderings through the wilderness and the final entry into the promised land.
In the Tell el-Amarna letters the friendly kings ask Pharaoh for much gold.
The young Akh Pharaoh Amenophis IV.
Of a more primitive character, however, is another parallel story of Abraham at the court of Pharaoh, king of Egypt (xii.
A supreme priestly rank, that of Rish 'amma: or "head of the people," is recognized, but only in theory; since the time of Pharaoh this sovereign pontificate has only once been filled.
It was cut on the rocks by an Egyptian nobleman named Hannu, who states that he was sent by Pharaoh Sankhkere, Menthotp IV., with a force gathered out of the Thebaid, from Coptos to the Red Sea, there to take command of a naval expedition to the Holy Land of Punt (Puoni), "to bring back odoriferous gums."
That he was blind of one eye; that he was the Elihu of Job; that, as one of Pharaoh's counsellors, he was governor of a city of Ethiopia, and rebelled against Pharaoh; Moses was sent against him by Pharaoh at the head of an army, and stormed the city and put Balaam to flight, &c. &c.
Not until 608 did a Pharaoh (Necho) lead an Egyptian army so far north, and he was defeated by Nebuchadrezzar.
In 588 Apries (Pharaoh Hophra) made an attempt 1 The above interpretation of Menander and the Assyrian evidence is based upon Ed.
The enormous constructive energy of the proud Pharaoh, instead of being concentrated on the capital, was expended with almost equal lavishness on other parts of the country.
The king (for titles see PHARAOH) was the head of the hierarchy: he was himself divine and is often styled the good god, and was the proper mediator between gods and men.
It became the theory that the temples were the gifts of the Pharaoh to his fathers the gods, and therefore in the scenes of the cult that adorn the inner walls it is always he who is depicted as performing the ceremonies.
Of the old deities Ammon represented by far the wealthiest and most powerful interests, and against this long favored deity the Pharaoh hurled himself with fury.
Those who relied on Pharaoh and remained loyal as their fathers had done sent letter after letter appealing for aid against their foes.
Pharaoh Hophra (Apries), 589570 B.C., fomented rebellion against the Babylonian suzerainty in Judah, but accomplished little there.
It was allotted to the Levites, but its original inhabitants were not driven out until the time of Solomon, when "Pharaoh, king of Egypt" took the city and gave it as a dowry to his daughter, Solomon's wife (1 Kings ix.
17), (d) the return of Moses to Egypt, and his appeal to Pharaoh which results in the further oppression of Israel (iv.
Throughout the P sections Aaron is associated with Moses, and the regular command given to the latter is "Say unto Aaron": no demand is ever made to Pharaoh, and the description of the plague is quite short.
If Pharaoh still remains obdurate his first-born is threatened (iv.
Its combination with the name of the king, as in PharaohNecho, Pharaoh-Hophra, is in accordance with contemporary native usage: the name of the earlier Pharaoh Shishak (Sheshonk) is rightly given without the title.
From Meroe to Memphis the commonest subject carved or painted in the interiors of the temples is that of some contemporary Phrah or Pharaoh worshipping the presiding deity with oblations of gold and silver vessels, rich vestments, gems, the firstlings of the flock and herd, cakes, fruits, flowers, wine, anointing oil and incense.
The first Pharaoh of the succeeding dynasty, Rameses I., came to terms with a Kheta king called Saplel or Saparura; but Seti I.
He was kindly received by Pharaoh, who gave him the sister of his queen Tahpenes to wife.
II that the Israelites built in Egypt for the Pharaoh two store-cities, Pithom and Rameses.
Hence the Pharaoh of the Exodus is commonly supposed to have been Ramses (Rameses) II.'s successor, Merenptah (Mineptah).
After an interview with the Pharaoh (recorded only by P, xlvii.
6 But the fullest information about the state of Phoenicia in the i 5th and 14th centuries B.C. comes from the Amarna tablets, among which are many letters from the subject princes and the Egyptian governors of Phoenicia to the Pharaoh.'
One would suppose that the most ignorant Jew could never have mistaken Haman, the minister of Ahasuerus, for the minister of Pharaoh, as happens in the Koran, or identified Miriam, the sister of Moses, with Mary (= Mariam), the mother of Christ.
Pharaoh Marres (Marres being, his praenomen graecized).
Psammetichus died in the fifty-fourth year of his reign and was succeeded by his son Necho, 610594 B.C. Taking advantage of the helpless state of the Assyrians, whose capital was assailed by the Medes and the Babylonians, the new Pharaoh prepared an expedition to recover the ancient possessions of the Empire in Syria.
It is to this latter source that we owe the account of the birth of Moses and of his education at the court of Pharaoh (ii.
16 f., while the demand which is to be addressed to Pharaoh is identical 1 The fact that the father-in-law of Moses is called Reuel in v.
The original order of events in J seems to have been as follows: after the death of Pharaoh (ii.
PHARAOH (Par`oh), the Hebraized title of the king of Egypt, in Egyptian Per-`o; Pheron in Herodotus represents the same.
At midnight all the first-born of the Egyptians are slain and Pharaoh sends the Israelites out of Egypt in haste, and the people took the dough before it was leavened upon kneading troughs upon their shoulders.
The sign, however, has no effect on Pharaoh (vii.
The earth is conceived of as a round disk, slightly sloping towards the south, surrounded on three sides by the sea, but on the north by a high mountain of turquoises; behind this is the abode of the blest, a sort of inferior paradise, inhabited by the Egyptians who were saved from drowning with Pharaoh in the Red Sea, and whom the Mandaeans look upon as their ancestors, Pharaoh himself having been their first high priest and king.
Apart from the literary characteristics which clearly differentiate this narrative from the preceding accounts of J and E, the following points of variation are worthy of consideration: (I) The people refuse to listen to Moses; (2) Aaron is appointed to be Moses' spokesman, not with the people, but with Pharaoh; (3) one sign is given (not three) and performed before Pharaoh; (4) the rod is turned into a reptile (tannin), not a serpent (n(thash).
In early Egypt men of rank would be followed by a servant carrying a pair of sandals in case of need; but in the New Kingdom they were in common use, although a typical difference is observed when princes appear unshod in the presence of the Pharaoh, who wears sandals him self.
The other bears the record of a second expedition to the same land of Punt, undertaken by command of Queen Hatshepsut, 1600 B.C. It is preserved in the vividly chiselled and richly coloured decorations portraying the history of the reign of this famous Pharaoh on the walls of the "Stage Temple" at Thebes.
I) is mainly taken from J, though E's account of the first interview with Pharaoh has been partially retained in v.
Other distinctive features of J's narrative are: (I) Moses alone is bidden to interview Pharaoh (vii.
To this civilization as a whole it is convenient to give the name "Minoan," and the name of Minos itself may be reasonably thought to cover a dynastic even more than a personal significance in much the same way as such historic terms as "Pharaoh" or "Caesar."
I f.); (2) on each occasion he makes a formal demand; (3) on Pharaoh's refusal the plague is announced, and takes place at a fixed time without any human intervention; (4) when the plague is sent, Pharaoh sends for Moses and entreats his intercession, promising in most cases to accede in part to his request; when the plague is removed, however, the promise is left unfulfilled, the standing phrase being "and Pharaoh's heart was heavy (7f)," or "and Pharaoh made heavy (-r»n) his heart"; (5) the plagues do not affect the children of Israel in Goshen.