It is chiefly famous as the place where Petrarch lived his last few years and died in 1374.
Robert was a man of learning, devoted to literature, and a generous patron of literary men: he befriended the poet Petrarch, who admired the king so greatly as to express the wish to see him lord of all Italy; while Boccaccio celebrated the virtues and charms of Robert's natural daughter Maria, under the name of Fiammetta.
In great state the tribune moved through the streets of Rome, being received at St Peter's with the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus, while in a letter the poet Petrarch urged him to continue his great and noble work, and congratulated him on his past achievements, calling him the new Camillus, Brutus and Romulus.
At Avignon, where he appeared in August 1352, Rienzi was tried by three cardinals, and was sentenced to death, but this judgment was not carried out, and he remained in prison in spite of appeals from Petrarch for his release.
He continued to reside at Avignon despite the arguments of envoys and the verses of Petrarch, but threw a sop to the Romans by reducing the Jubilee term from one hundred years to fifty.
On the first of these visits he made the acquaintance of a fellow bibliophile in Petrarch, who records his impression (Epist.
The Byzantine palace seems to have had twin angle-towers - geminas angulares turres - such as those of the Ca' Molin on the Riva degli Schiavoni, where Petrarch lived.
These compositions belonged to a species which, since Petrarch set the fashion, were very popular among Italian scholars.
For him, as for Petrarch, St Augustine was the model of a Christian student.
Petrarch had urgently pressed Urban V., Gregory's immediate predecessor, to accomplish the desired change; and Dante had at an earlier date laboured to bring about the same object.
Their historical importance, their spiritual fragrance and their literary value combine to put their author almost on a level with Petrarch as a 14th century letter-writer.
Among the natives of Arezzo the most famous are the Benedictine monk Guido of Arezzo, the inventor of the modern system of musical notation (died c. 1050), the poet Petrarch, Pietro Aretino, the satirist (1492-1556), and Vasari, famous for his lives of Italian painters.
Petrarch (1304-1374) has been well described as Italy.
Petrarch had discovered Cicero's Speech pro Archia at Liege (1333) and the Letters to Atticus and Quintus at Verona (1345).
Petrarch was not only the imitator of Virgil, who had been the leading name in Latin letters throughout the middle ages; it was the influence of Petrarch that gave a new prominence to Cicero.
1 797 D'Israeli published three novels; one of these, Mejnoun andLeila, the Arabian Petrarch and Laura, was said to be the first oriental romance in English.
Olive, a collection of love-sonnets written in close imitation of Petrarch, first appeared in 1549.
It was the opinion of Petrarch that, had Urban remained in Rome, he would have been entitled to rank with the most distinguished men of his era; and, if we discount this single act of weakness, he must be classed as one of the noblest and best of popes.
Casa is chiefly remarkable as the leader of a reaction in lyric poetry against the universal imitation of Petrarch, and as the originator of a style, which, if less soft and elegant, was more nervous and majestic than that which it replaced.
And of Petrarch, left Avignon on the 30th of April 1367, despite the opposition of the French cardinals, and made his entry into Rome on the 16th of October.
The poet Petrarch, who was the doge's intimate friend, was sent to Venice on a peace mission by Giovanni Visconti, lord of Milan.
The great Latin poets were imitators indeed, but mere imitators they were no more than Petrarch or Milton.
At the request of the Roman people, which was supported by St Bridget of Sweden and by Petrarch, Clement VI.
To Malocello's enterprise, moreover, it is probable that Petrarch (born 1304) alludes when he tells how, within the memory of his parents, an armed fleet of Genoese penetrated to the "Fortunatae"; this passage some would refer, without sufficient authority, to the expedition of 1291.
Petrarch says that among his countrymen Cicero was a great name, but was studied by few.
Petrarch himself sought for MSS.
Petrarch was under the impression in his old age that he had once possessed Cicero's lost work de Gloria, but it is probable that he was misled by one of the numerous passages in the extant writings dealing with this subject.'
18) M., which until recently was supposed to have been copied by Petrarch himself from the lost Veronensis.
It is now known not to be in the hand of Petrarch, but it was still supposed to be the archetype of all Italian MSS., and possibly of all MSS., including the lost C and Z.
It was according to tradition in a tower which, previous to 1584, stood near the church of the Annunziata that Boethius wrote his De consolatione philosophiae; the legal school of Pavia was rendered celebrated in the 11th century by Lanfranc (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury); Petrarch was frequently here as the guest of Galeazzo II., and his grandson died and was buried here.
Petrarch first opened a new method in scholarship, and revealed what we denote as humanism.
Petrarch not only set his countrymen upon the right method of studying the Latin classics, but he also divined the importance of recovering a knowledge of Greek literature.
The Divine Comedy, the Canzoniere and the Decameron were works of monumental art, deriving neither form nor inspiration immediately from the classic's, but applying the originality of Italian genius Petrarch to matter drawn from previous medieval sources.
Petrarch and Boccaccio, though they both held the medieval doctrine that literature should teach some abstruse truth beneath a veil of fiction, differed from Dante in this that their poetry and prose in the vernacular abandoned both allegory and symbol.
So much had to be premised in order to make it clear in what relation humanism stood to the Renaissance, since the Italian work of Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio is sufficient to indicate the re-birth of the spirit after ages of apparent deadness.
Petrarch and Boccaccio were, as we have seen, the pioneers of the new learning.
The fascination of pure study was so powerful, the Italians at that epoch were so eager to recover the past, that during the 15th century we have before our eyes the spectacle of this great nation deviating from the course of development begun in poetry by Dante and Petrarch, in prose by Boccaccio ism to and Villani, into the channels of scholarship and anti- - quarian research.
From Petrarch to the Epistolae obscurorum virorum there is a whole epistolary literature.
"Viret," note D), though the deistic standpoint had already been foreshadowed to some extent by Averroists, by Italian authors like Boccaccio and Petrarch, in More's Utopia (1515), and by French writers like Montaigne, Charron and Bodin.
Like Ovid and many other poets, Petrarch felt no inclination for his father's profession.
A great Roman noble and ecclesiastic, Giacomo Colonna, afterwards bishop of Lombez, now befriended him, and Petrarch lived for some years in partial dependence on this patron.
Not very long after these events Petrarch made his first journey to Rome, a journey memorable from the account which he has left us of the impression he received from its ruins.
There, in the month of April, Petrarch assumed the poet's crown upon the Capitol from the hand of the Roman senator amid the plaudits of the people and the patricians.
With the coronation in Rome a fresh chapter in the biography of Petrarch may be said to have begun.
He invited Petrarch to attend him when he made his triumphal entry at the end of May; and from this time forward for a considerable period Parma and Vaucluse were the two headquarters of the poet.
Petrarch remained true to the instinct of his own vocation, and had no intention of sacrificing his studies and his glory to ecclesiastical ambition.
In January 1343 his old friend and patron Robert, king of Naples, died, and Petrarch was sent on an embassy from the papal court to his successor Joan.
It is much to be regretted that Petrarch found the precious MS. so late in life, when the style of his own epistles had been already modelled upon that of Seneca and St Augustine.
Petrarch, who in politics was no less visionary than Rienzi, hailed the advent of a founder and deliverer in the self-styled tribune.
Petrarch built himself a house at Parma in the autumn of 1347.
Petrarch remained an incurable rhetori cian; and, while he stigmatized the despots in his ode to Italy and in his epistles to the emperor he accepted their hospitality.
When the jubilee of 1350 was proclaimed, Petrarch made a pilgrimage to Rome, passing and returning through Florence, where he established a firm friendship with Boccaccio.
Boccaccio carried his admiration for Petrarch to the point of worship, Petrarch repaid him with sympathy, counsel in literary studies, and moral support which helped to elevate and purify the younger poet's oversensuous nature.
It was Boccaccio who in the spring of 1351 brought to Petrarch, then resident with the Carrara family at Padua, an invitation from the seigniory of Florence to accept the rectorship of their recently founded university.
But, flattering as was the offer, Petrarch declined it.
He induced Petrarch, who had long been a friend of the Visconti family, to establish himself at his court, where he found employment for him as ambassador and orator.
Petrarch was entrusted with the office; and on the 8th of November he delivered a studied oration before the doge Andrea Dandolo and the great council.
There Petrarch made his acquaintance, and, finding him a man unfit for any noble enterprise, declined attending him to Rome.
When Charles returned to Germany, after assuming the crowns in Rome and Milan, Petrarch addressed a letter of vehement invective and reproach to the emperor who was so negligent of the duties imposed on him by his high office.