10) and Petra (Strabo).
Briinnow's great survey of Petra, with part of Moab and Edom.
Comparetti and de Petra, La Villa Ercolanese dei Pisani, Turin, 1883).
This plan, which is here reproduced from de Petra 1 is the only satisfactory document for the topography of Herculaneum; for the plan of the theatre published in the Bullettino archeologico italiano (Naples, 1861, i.
PETRA (3) H&pa = the rock), a ruined site, 30°19' N.
Walled in by towering rocks and watered by a perennial stream, Petra not only possessed the advantages of a fortress but controlled the main commercial routes which passed through it to Gaza in the west, to Bostra and Damascus in the north, to Elath and Leuce Come on the Red Sea, and across the desert to the Persian Gulf.
Their power extended far into Arabia, particularly along the Red Sea; and Petra was a meeting-place of many nations, though its commerce was diminished by the rise of the Eastern trade-route from Myoshormus to Coptos on the Nile.
Gaza, Tiberias and Petra (Reinach, Textes relatifs au Judaisme, p. 198).
At this point the great trade routes met in ancient times, the one crossing from the Phoenician ports to the Persian Gulf, the other coming up from Petra and south Arabia.
The region of Damascus, hitherto a dependency, and the last remaining fragment of the Jewish kingdom, were incorporated with Syria; Bostra and Petra were permanently occupied, and a great portion of the Nabataean kingdom was organized as the Roman province of Arabia.
As for Nestorius himself, immediately after his deposition he withdrew into private life in his old monastery of Euprepius, Antioch, until 435, when the emperor ordered his banishment to Petra in Arabia.
Two such still remain hard by the ruins of the royal sanctuary of Edom, overlooking Petra, and are obelisks in form, 18 ft.
Instantly came the reply, " I say unto thee, that thou art Petros (rockman), and on this Petra (rock) I will build my ecclesia (church); and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it."
Ghuzzeh), the most southerly of the five princely Philistine cities, situated near the sea, at the point where the old trade routes from Egypt, Arabia and Petra to Syria met.
It had therefore been specially garrisoned by Justinian under first Peter, a Persian slave, and subsequently Johannes Tzibos, who built Petra on the coast as the Roman Headquarters.
Petra was recaptured in 551 and Archaeopolis was held by the Romans against the Persian general Mermeroes.
Hoskins, Jordan Valley and Petra (1905), and the very elaborate and scientific works by R.
From the `Araba travellers approach by a track which leads round Jebel Harun (Mt Hor) and enters the plain of Petra from the south; it is just possible to find a way in from the high plateau on the north; but the most impressive entrance is from the east, down a dark and narrow gorge, in places only to or 12 ft.
But that Petra itself is mentioned in the Old Testament cannot be affirmed with certainty; for though Petra is usually identified with Sela` 2 which also means " a rock," the reference in Judges i.
94-97) which describes the expeditions which Antigonus sent against the Nabataeans in 312 B.C. is generally understood to throw some light upon the history of Petra, though it must be admitted that the Petra referred to as a natural fortress and place of refuge cannot be a proper name, and the description at any rate implies that the town was not yet in existence.
North of Petra, Shobak, the Mont-royal of the Crusaders.2 More satisfactory evidence of the date at which the earliest Nabataean settlement began is to be obtained from an examination of the tombs.
The exact dates of the stages in this development cannot be fixed, for strangely enough few inscriptions of any length have been found at Petra, 4 perhaps because they have perished with the stucco or cement which was used upon many of the buildings.
Philhellene, c. 85-60 B.C., the royal coins begin; at this time probably the theatre was excavated, and Petra must have assumed the aspect of a Hellenistic city.
106, when Cornelius Palma was governor of Syria, "Arabia belonging to Petra," 5 was absorbed into the Roman Empire, and the native dynasty came to an end.
131 by Hadrian, and stamped Adriane Petra on its coins in gratitude for the emperor's benefactions; the superb IIazne, probably a temple for the worship of Isis, and the Der, which resembles the IIazne in design, belong to this period.
130-270) grew in importance and attracted the Arabian trade away from Petra, the latter declined; it seems, however, to have lingered on as a religious centre; for we are told by Epiphanius (c. A.D.
The chief god of Petra was Dhu-shara (Aovaapns), i.e.
Sanctuary chambers may be seen at various points in the site of Petra, and many places of sacrifice open to the sky are met with among the tombs, marked by remains of altars.
En-Nejr, with the theatre at its foot, must have been the sacred mountain, the original sanctuary of Petra, perhaps " the very high mountain of Arabia called Dusare after the god Dusares " referred to by Steph.
Christianity found its way into Petra in early times; Athanasius mentions a bishop of Petra (IIETp, v Tyr 'Apa(31as, ad Antioch.
The Christianity of Petra, as of north Arabia, was swept away by the Mahommedan conquest in A.D.
Under the Latin kingdom Petra was.
The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity in the middle ages and were visited by the Sultan Bibars of Egypt towards the close of the 13th century.
All former descriptions are now superseded by the magnificent work of Brunnow and Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia (1904), who have minutely surveyed the whole site, classified the tombs, and compiled the accounts of earlier investigations; and by the independent researches of Dalman, Petra and seine Felsheiligtiimer (1908), and of Musil, Arabia Petraea (1907-1908).
The occupation of the pass of Furlo (Petra Pertusa) by the Goths prevented his marching by the Via Flaminia, but, taking a short circuit, he rejoined the great road near Cagli.
30-31), and consequently not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the traditional scene from the time of Josephus (Ant.
10), has been identified with the modern es-Sarah, the hilly region to the south of Petra; though its use probably varied in ancient times as much as that of Edom certainly did.
Petra is usually identified with the biblical Sela, unless this latter is to be placed at the south end of the Dead Sea (Judg.
It was traversed by an important trade-route from Elath (the junction for routes to Egypt and Arabia) which ran northwards by Mean and Moab; but cross-routes turned from Ma`an and Petra to Gaza or up the Ghor (south end of Dead Sea) to Hebron and Jerusalem.'
The designation suggests that these were "cave-dwellers," but although many caves and hollows have been found about Petra (and also in Palestine), this tradition probably "serves only to express the idea entertained by later generations concerning their predecessors" (Noldeke).
Hoskins, The Jordan Valley and Petra (1905); the conjectural sketch by I.
His doing so, while it brought upon him the anathema of the patriarch of Constantinople, failed to secure the favour of Anastasius, who in 511 found in the riots which were occurring between the rival parties in the streets of Antioch a pretext for deposing Flavian, and banishing him to Petra, where he died in 518.
Of Petra; the ruins here are comparatively unimportant.
By Devletli Aghach and Eski Polos on Petra; (c) 3 of 5th Div.
Of Petra on their right.
Jerome describes Idumaea as extending from Beit Jibrin to Petra, and ascribes the great caves at the former place to cavedwellers like the aboriginal Horites.
Brezan, Zivot Vilema z Rosenberka (Life of William of Rosenberg), 1847; also Zivot Petra Voka z Rosenberka (Life of Peter Vok of Rosenberg), 1880.
Sal, salt, petra, a rock), the commercial name given to three naturally occurring nitrates, distinguished as (1) ordinary saltpetre, nitre, or potassium nitrate, (2) Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre, or sodium nitrate, (3) wall-saltpetre or calcium nitrate.
Burckhardt, who had already won a reputation as the discoverer of Petra, and whose experience of travel in Arab lands and knowledge of Arab life qualified him to pass as a Moslem, even in the headquarters of Islam.
The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.
They ruled over the tribe of Ghassan in the extreme north-west of Arabia, east of the Jordan, from near Petra in the south to the neighbourhood of Rosafa in the north-east.
This debris must have belonged to the castle of Petra Pertusa, burned by the Lombards in 570 or 571 on their way to Rome.
Subsequently he appears to have travelled in the East (Petra and Egypt) and to have made himself famous by lecturing in the great cities of the Mediterranean.
Sometimes the Aramaic versions give the form Rekem-Geya, which recalls the name of the village El-ji, south-east of Petra; the capital, however, would hardly be defined by the name of a neighbouring village.
In 1880 Bishop Corrigan was made coadjutor, with the right of succession, to Cardinal McCloskey, archbishop of New York, under the title of archbishop of Petra; and thereafter nearly all the practical work of the archdiocese fell to his hands.
They might have long been a bulwark between Rome and the wild hordes of the desert but for the shortsighted cupidity of Trajan, who reduced Petra and broke up the Nabataean nationality (105 A.D.).