The petals were like silk, their scent strong and sweet.
Flower after fall of petals, magnified.
The first consists of cutting up the various fabrics and materials employed into shapes suitable for forming the leaves, petals, &c.; this may be done by scissors, but more often stamps are employed which will cut through a dozen or more thicknesses at one blow.
In diameter, and bear in the axil a solitary, stalked, white flower, about the size and shape of the garden anemone, with six or more petals and twice as many hypogynous stamens.
The sepals are generally organs for the protection of the flower-bud; the petals, for attracting insects by their conspicuous form and color; the foliage-leaves, for the assimilation of carbon dioxide and other associated functions.
Thus, in a phanerogam, the sepals, petals, stamens and foliage-leaves all come under the category leaf, though some are parts of the perianth, others are spore-bearing organs (sporophylls), and others carry on nutritive processes.
The parts of the flower are most frequently arranged in fives, or multiples of fives; for instance, a common arrangement is as follows, - five sepals, succeeded by five petals, ten stamens in two sets of five, and five or fewer carpels; an arrangement in fours is less frequent, while the arrangement in threes, so common in monocotyledons, is rare in dicotyledons.
Many Thomisidae lurk amongst the stamens and petals of flowers, which they closely match in colour, waiting to seize the insects which visit the blossoms for nectar.
The flowers, which are solitary, or rarely in pairs, at the end of slender axillary flower-stalks, are very irregular in form, with five sepals prolonged at the base, and five petals, the lowest one larger than the others and with a spur, in which collects the honey secreted by the spurs of the two adjoining stamens.
B, pair of bracteoles below the flower; s, sepals; p, petals; st, stamens; o, ovary.
Two of the petals placed under the hood of the calyx are supported on long stalks, and have a hollow spur at their apex, containing honey.
Gloriosa, well known in cultivation, climbs by means of its tendril-like leaftips; it has handsome flowers with decurved orange-red or yellow petals; it is a native of tropical Asia and Africa.
Terminating the short annual shoot which bears a whorl of four or more leaves below the flower; in this and in some species of the nearly allied genus Trillium (chiefly temperate North America) the flowers have a fetid smell, which together with the dark purple of the ovary and stigmas and frequently also of the stamens and petals, attracts carrion-loving flies, which alight on the stigma and then climb the anthers and become dusted with pollen; the pollen is then carried to the stigmas of another flower.
The corolla is generally funnelshaped, more rarely bell-shaped or tubular; the outer face is often marked out in longitudinal areas, five well-defined areas tapering from base to apex, and marked with longitudinal striae corresponding to the middle of the petals, and alternating with five non-striated weaker triangular areas; in the bud the latter are folded inwards, the stronger areas being exposed and showing a twist to the right.
The other flowers of the lonaas are the papita de San Juan (Begonia geranifolia), with red petals contrasting with the white inner sides, valerians, the beautiful Bomarea ovata, several species of Oxalis, Solanum and crucifers.
Fritillus, a chess-board, so called from the chequered markings on the petals), a genus of hardy bulbous plants of the natural order Liliaceae, containing about 50 species widely distributed in the northern hemisphere.
It will not suffer any training, nor does it, like the plum, improve by pruning, but the sunshine that attends its brief period of bloom in April, the magnificence of its flower-laden boughs and the picturesque flutter of its falling petals, inspired an ancient poet to liken it to the soul, of Yamato (Japan), and it has ever since been thus regarded.
Thus, having pierced a spray of flowers in a thin sheet of shibuichi, the artist fits a slender rim of gold, silver or shakudo to the petals, leaves and stalks, so that an effect is produced of transparent blossoms outlined in gold, silver or purple.
The sepals and petals are free or more or less united, the stamens as many or twice as many as the petals; the carpels, usually free, are equal to the petals in number, and form in the fruit follicles with two or more seeds.
The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
The flowers are mostly heavy and drooping, petals brightly coloured, the edges being curiously notched and waved.
- Diagram of the flowers of the three forms of Lythrum salicaria in their natural position, with the petals and calyx removed on the near side.
In Pelargonium the flower is zygomorphic with a spurred posterior sepal and the petals differing in size or shape.
An outer whorl of five opposite the petals alternates with an inner whorl of five opposite the sepals; at the base of each of the antisepalous stamens is a honey-gland.
In botany the word is used of the praefloration or folded arrangement of the petals in a flower before expansion in the summer, contrasted with "vernation" of leaves which unfold in the spring.
It must suffice here to say that double flowers are most commonly the result of the substitution of brightly-coloured petals for stamens or pistils or both, and that a perfectly double flower where all the stamens and pistils are thus metamorphosed is necessarily barren.
Papaver somniferum flore-pleno: hardy, 3 ft., white, lilac, rose, &c.; petals sometimes fringed.
The Snowdrop. Early spring-flowering amaryllidaceous bulbs, with pretty drooping flowers, snow-white, having the tips of the enclosed petals green.
The corolla has from five to nine petals, cohering at the base.
The sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or six) petals, which are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily.
Cultivated forms of this, with exquisite shades of colour and without any blotch at the base of the petals, are known as Shirley poppies.
The Californian poppy (Platystemon californicus) is a pretty annual about a foot high, having yellow flowers with 3 sepals and 6 petals; and the white bush poppy (Romneya Coulteri) is a very attractive perennial and semishrubby plant 2-8 ft.
In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.
The former comprise three classes, which are distinguished by the relative position of the stamens and ovary; the eleven classes of the latter are based on the same set of characters and fall into the larger subdivisions Apetalae, Monopetalae and Polypetalae, characterized respectively by absence, union or freedom of the petals, and a subdivision, Diclines Irregulares, a very unnatural group, including one class only.
Of the Polypetalae, series i, Thalamiflorae, is characterized by hypogynous petals and stamens, and contains 34 orders distributed in 6 larger groups or cohorts.
Series 3, Calyciflorae, has petals and stamens perigynous, or sometimes superior.
Fruit cut across showing the petals and the stigmas have three chambers containing been removed, leaving the seeds.
Inner petals (a) and stamens.
As an example of extreme asymmetry we may take de Vries's record of the frequency with which given numbers of petals occur in a certain race of buttercups.
Here the mode is at 4.5 petals, the mean at 5.6 petals, the median lying of course between the two.
The sepals are leafy and persistent; the corolla is generally divided into a longer or shorter tube and a limb which is spreading, as in primrose, or reflexed, as in Cyclamen; in Soldanella it is bell-shaped; in Lysimachia the tube is often very short, the petals appearing almost free; in Glaux the petals are absent.
Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordia of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels.
In diameter, with five spreading white petals alternating with five persistent green sepals, a large number of stamens with pinkish-brown anthers, and one to three carpels sunk in the cup-shaped floral axis.
Adonis autumnalis has become naturalized in some parts of England; the petals are scarlet with a dark spot at the base.
The irregular flowers have five sepals united at the base, the dorsal one produced into a spurred development of the axis; of the five petals the two upper are slightly different and stand rather apart from the lower three; the eight stamens are unequal and the pistil consists of three carpels which form a fleshy fruit separating into three one-seeded portions.
The veins of the leaves are next impressed by means of a die, and the petals are given their natural rounded forms by goffering irons of various shapes.
Under the head of malformations we place cases of atrophy of parts or general dwarfing, due to starvation, the attacks of Fungi or minute insects, the presence of unsuitable food-materials and so on, as well as cases of transformation of stamens into petals, carpels into leaves, and so forth.
Accepting this view of the phylogeny of the leaf, the perianthleaves (sepals and petals) and the foliage-leaves may be regarded as modified or metamorphosed sporophylls; that is, as leaves which are adapted to functions other than the bearing of spores.
Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.
From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens.
The flowers, which are borne in the leaf-axils at the ends of the stem, are very handsome, the six, generally narrow, petals are bent back and stand erect, and are a rich orange yellow or red in colour; the six stamens project more or less horizontally from the place of insertion of the petals.
CAPRIFOLIACEAE, a natural order of plants belonging to the sympetalous or higher division of Dicotyledons, that namely which is characterized by having the petals of the flower united.
And Sambucus, more rarely two-lipped as in Lonicera; the sepals and petals are usually five in number and placed above the ovary, the five stamens are attached to the corolla-tube, there are three to five carpels, and the fruit is a berry as in honeysuckle or snowberry (Symphoricarpus), or a stone fruit, with several, usually three, stones, as in Sambucus.
The flowers have a hollow tube at the base bearing at its free edge five sepals, an equal number of petals, usually concave or spoon-shaped, pink or white, and a great number of stamens.
CRUCIFERAE, or Crucifer family, a natural order of flowering plants, which derives its name from the cruciform arrangement of the four petals of the flower.
The flowers are regular, with four free sepals arranged in two pairs at right angles, four petals arranged crosswise in one series, and two sets of stamens, an outer with two members and an inner with four, in two pairs placed in the middle line of the flower and at right angles to the outer series.
The petals are generally white or yellow, more rarely lilac or some other colour, and between the bases of the stamens are honey-glands.
Each has a small calyx in the form of a shallow rim, sometimes five-lobed or toothed; five petals, which cohere by their tips and form a cap or hood, which is pushed off when the stamens are ripe; and five free stamens, placed opposite the petals and springing from a fleshy ring or disk surrounding the ovary; each bears a twocelled anther.
The anomalous position of the stamens in front of the petals is explained by the abortion or non-development of an outer row of stamens, indications of which are sometimes seen on the hypogynous disk encircling the ovary.
At night it crawls about in search of food, which consists to a small extent of dead animal or vegetable matter, but principally, as gardeners are aware, of the petals and other parts of flowers of growing shoots and soft ripe fruit.
Decidere, to fall down), a botanical and zoological term for "falling in season," as of petals after flowering, leaves in autumn, the teeth or horns of animals, or the wings of insects.