Thenceforward it passes by deep gorges through the Mohmand hills, curving northward until it emerges into the Peshawar plain at Michni.
The north-eastern portion of this range is of great altitude, and separates the headwaters of the Oxus, which run off to the Aral Sea, from those of the Indus and its Kabul tributary, which, uniting below Peshawar, are thence discharged southward into the Arabian Sea.
It leaves the Hindu Kush near the Dorah Pass at the head of one of the minor Chitral affluents, and passing south-west divides Kafiristan from Chitral and Bajour, separates the sections of the Mohmands who are within the respective spheres of Afghan and British sovereignty, and crosses the Peshawar-Kabul route at Lundi-Khana.
The ethnographical status of the mixed tribes of the mountains that lie between Chitral and the Peshawar plains has been fairly well fixed by John Biddulph, and much patient inquiry in the vast fields of Baluchistan by Major Mockler, G.
Later most of the historic invasions of India from central Asia followed the route which leads directly from Kabul to Peshawar and Delhi.
The Gandhara school of sculpture, of which the best specimens come from the neighbourhood of Kanishka's capital, Purushpura (the modern Peshawar), is a branch of Graeco-Roman art adapted to Oriental religious subjects.
They live on the Loargai border of Peshawar district, and number some 3000 fighting men.
More exactly it consists of (1) the cis-Indus district of Hazara; (2) the comparatively narrow strip between the Indus and the hills constituting the settled districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan; and (3) the rugged mountainous region between these districts and the borders of Afghanistan, which is inhabited by independent tribes.
The tract between the Indus and the hills consists of four open districts, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, divided one from the other by low hills.
Adjoining Peshawar, and separated from it by the Jowaki hills, lies the district of Kohat, a generally hilly tract intersected by narrow valleys.
The invasion in 1738 of Nadir Shah, who traversed the province from Peshawar to Dera Ismail Khan, is a landmark in the history of the frontier.
Rice and sugar-cane are largely grown on the irrigated lands of Hazara, Peshawar and Bannu districts, and the well and canal irrigated tracts of Peshawar district produce fine crops of cotton and tobacco.
The province is mainly a mountainous region, but includes the Peshawar valley and the broad riverain tract of the Indus in Dera Ismail Khan district.
Canals are the main source of irrigation in the province, and fall under three heads: (I) Private canals in the various districts, the property of the people and managed on their behalf; (2) the Michni Dilazak and Shabkadar branch in Peshawar, constructed by the district board, which receives water rates; and (3) the Swat and Kabul river canals, which were constructed by and are the property of government, and are managed by the irrigation department.
The main line of the NorthWestern railway runs from Rawalpindi to Peshawar, whence it has been extended 9 m.
Geographically the Safed Koh is not an isolated range, for there is no break in the continuity of water divide which connects it with the great Shandur offshoot of the Hindu Kush except the narrow trough of the Kabul river, which cuts a deep waterway across where it makes its way from Dakka into the Peshawar plains.
Approaching the Peshawar plains the Safed Koh throws off long spurs eastward, and amongst the foothills of these eastern spurs the Afridi Tirah long remained hidden from European eyes.
A much smaller work, but one of great interest, is the Swat river canal in the Peshawar valley.
In 1823 the city and province of Peshawar became tributary to him.
Between it and Peshawar intervenes the Khyber Pass, and between it and Kabul the passes of Jagdalak, Khurd Kabul, &c. The site was chosen by the emperor Baber, and he laid out some gardens here; but the town itself was built by his grandson Akbar in A.D.
As a strategical centre Jalalabad is one of the most important positions in Afghanistan, for it dominates the entrances to the Laghman and the Kunar valleys; commanding routes to Chitral or India north of the Khyber, as well as the Kabul-Peshawar road.
By rail from Peshawar, and situated on the eastern bank of the Indus.
In 1883 an iron girder bridge of five spans was opened, which carries the North-Western railway to Peshawar, and has also a subway for wheeled traffic and foot passengers.
Between Jalalabad and Peshawar is the Khyber pass.
Traces of his raiding and roadmaking are still visible, but it is certain that he made use of the more direct route to Peshawar far more frequently than he did of the Tochi.
An ancient stone vessel preserved in a mosque at Kandahar is almost certainly the same that was treasured at Peshawar in the 5th century as the begging pot of SakyaMuni.
The ancient architecture of Kashmir, the tope of Manikyala in the Punjab, and many sculptures found in the Peshawar valley, show unmistakable Greek influence.
Its traces are extensive, especially in the plains of Jalalabad and Peshawar, but also in the vicinity of Kabul.
125, and whose power extended over the upper Oxus basin, Kabul, Peshawar, Kashmir and probably far into India.
Peshawar and the right bank of the Indus fell to the Sikhs after their victory at Nowshera in 1823.
One of the finest roads in the world is the Grand Trunk Road which stretches across India from Calcutta to Peshawar, and which is metalled most of the way with kankar, a hard limestone outgrowth.
Such edicts are still found graven deep upon pillars, in caves and on rocks, from the Yusafzai valley beyond Peshawar on the north-western frontier, through the heart of Hindustan, to Kathiawar and Mysore on the south and Orissa in the east.
At Peshawar the great monastery built by Kanishka was deserted, but the populace remained faithful.
1 In 1909 the excavation of a ruined stupa near Peshawar disclosed a casket, with an inscription of Kanishka, and containing fragments of bones believed to be those of Buddha himself.
3 From his capital at Purushapura (Peshawar) he not only maintained his hold on north-western India, but conquered Kashmir, attacked Pataliputra, carried on a successful war with the Parthians, and led an army across the appalling passes of the Taghdumbash Pamir to the conquest of Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan.
Sir Charles Metcalfe was the envoy to the court of Ranjit Singh at Lahore; Mountstuart Elphinstone met the shah of Afghanistan at Peshawar; and Sir John Malcolm was despatched to Persia.
His great ambition was to recover Peshawar from the Sikhs; and when Captain Alexander Burnes arrived on a mission from Lord Auckland, with the ostensible object of opening trade, the Dost was willing to promise everything, if only he could get Peshawar.
The latter was unable to satisfy the demands of Dost Mahommed in the matter of Peshawar, and returned to India unsuccessful.
Mohmands, Afridis, Orakzais and Shinwaris, as well as the Pathan tribes of the plains of Peshawar and those of Bangash and Khattak, although the derivation of some of these tribes from the true Durani stock is doubtful.
It was probably through the Khaibar (Khyber) Pass that he passed into the Peshawar plain, for it was there that he first defeated the Imperial forces.
On the 5th of May 1739 he left the gardens of Shalamar, and proceeded by way of Lahore and Peshawar through the passes to Kabul.
Travelling thence to Peshawar (Purushapura), the capital of Gandhara, he made a digression, through the now inaccessible valley of Swat and the Dard states, to the Upper Indus, returning to Peshawar, and then crossing the Indus (Sintu) into the decayed kingdom of Taxila (Ta-cha-si-lo, Takshasila), then subject to Kashmir.
The folds are part of an extensive system arranged as if in a festoon hanging southwards between Peshawar and Mount Ararat, but with the outer folds looped up at Sibi so as to form the subsidiary festoon of the Suliman and Bugti Hills.
Dost Mahommed was enjoined to abandon the attempt to recover Peshawar, and to place his foreign policy under British guidance.
The founder of this system seems to have been Asanga, an influential monk of Peshawar, who wrote the first text-book of the creed, the Yogachchdra Bhumi Sastra, in the 6th century A.D.
CHERAT, a hill cantonment and sanatorium in the Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province, India, 34 m.
It is situated at an elevation of 4500 ft., on the west of the Khattak range, which divides the Peshawar from the Kohat district.
Under Lord Kitchener's redistribution of the Indian army in 1903, the chief cantonments are Rawalpindi, Quetta, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu, Nowshera, Sialkot, Mian Mir, Umballa, Muttra, Ferozepore, Meerut, Lucknow,lllhow, Jubbulpore, Bolarum, Poona, Secunderabad and Bangalore.
Of hill roads and the passage of the Shandur pass (12,250 ft.), or (more directly) from the Peshawar frontier at Malakand by loo m.
An interesting feature in Bajour topography is a mountain spur from the Kunar range, which curving eastwards culminates in the well-known peak of Koh-i-Mor, which is visible from the Peshawar valley.
Long after Buddhism had spread to Chitral, Gilgit, Dir and Swat; whilst Ningrahar was still full of monasteries and temples, and the Peshawar valley was recognized as the seat of Buddhist learning, the Kafirs or Nysaeans held their own in Bajour and in the lower Kunar valley, where Buddhism apparently never prevailed.
There are no large industries to attract the population to the towns; these, except Peshawar and Dera Ismail Khan, are either expansions of large agricultural villages or bazaars which have grown up round the many cantonments of the province.