Iquique was an insignificant Peruvian fishing settlement until 1830 when the export of nitrate began.
In most parts ofithe Peruvian Andes the line of perpetual snow is at 16,400 ft.; but on the Cordillera Nevada, above the Callejon de Huaylas, it sinks to 15,400 ft.
But generally the low grounds are parched and rocky, presenting only a few thickets of Peruvian cactus and stunted shrubs, and a most uninviting shore.
The appearance of Drake on the Peruvian coast led to an expedition being fitted out at Callao, to go in chase of him, under the command of Pedro Sarmiento.
Some authorities hold that Peruvian civilization had no connexion with the north and was an entirely indigenous product, but Kechua is in structure not unlike the agglutinative languages of central and northern Asia.
Nitrate of soda, Peruvian guano and superphosphate of lime in the form of bones dissolved by sulphuric acid were now added to the list of manures, and the practice of analysing soils became more general.
" Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.
It is probably a hybrid between Sea Island and rough Peruvian cotton, but lacks most of the essential features of Sea Island.
The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
A subsidized Peruvian line is also contemplated to ply between the Pacific ports of South America with an eventual extension of the service to Europe.
Before the surrender all the Peruvian naval vessels in the harbour were sunk, to prevent their falling into the possession of the enemy.
From Olinda (Ponta de Pedra, 8° o' 57" S., 34° so' W.) due west to the Peruvian frontier (about 73° 50' W.).
As regards the Peruvian boundary, an agreement was reached in 1904 to submit the dispute to the arbitration of the president of Argentina in case further efforts to reach an amicable settlement failed.
Long., where the Peruvian section ends.
Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.
He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers - especially small-pox, and gave strong support to the use of specific medicines - especially Peruvian bark.
The Peruvian chinchilla (C, brevicaudata) is larger, with relatively shorter ears and tail; while still larger species constitute the genus Lagidium, ranging from the Andes to Patagonia, and distinguished by having four in place of five front-toes, more pointed ears, and a somewhat differently formed skull.
Among them may be mentioned the aperea or restless cavy (C. porcellus or C. aperea) of Brazil; the Bolivian C. boliviensis, found at great elevations in the Andes; the Brazilian rock-cavy (C. rupestris), characterized by its short blunt claws; and the Peruvian C. cutleri.
Dimethylamine, (CH 3) 2 NH, is found in Peruvian guano.
At the junction of 2 D the Cauches with that river, that Ecuadorean line descends the Chinchipe to the Maranon, and the Peruvian ascends to a point where it is intersected by a line following the eastern Cordillera northward to the head-waters of the Caqueta, or Japura, which forms the northern boundary down to the Brazilian frontier.
In 1903 there were encounters between small bodies of Peruvian and Ecuadorean troops on the disputed frontier.
The constantly prevailing wind on the Peruvian coast is from the south, which is a cold wind from the Humboldt current.
The Western Cordillera, overhanging the Peruvian coast, contains a long line of volcanic mountains, most of them inactive, but their presence is probably connected with the frequent and severe earthquakes, especially in the southern section of the coast.
Paz Soldan and other Peruvian geographers give the name of Andes, par excellence, to the Eastern Cordillera.
The animals which specially belong to the Peruvian Andes are the domestic llamas and alpacas and the wild vicunas.
The forests drained by the Maranon, Huallaga and Ucayali form the northern portion of the Peruvian montana.
A list of Peruvian authors in viceregal times occupies a long chapter in the life of St Toribio 1 by Montalvo; and the bibliographical labours of the Peruvian Leon Pinelo are still invaluable to Spanish students.
His Historia de la guerra del Pacifico is the Peruvian version of that disastrous war.
But the most valuable and important historical work by a modern Peruvian is General Mendiburu's (1805-1885) Diccionario historico-biografico del Peru, a monument of patient and conscientious research, combined with critical discernment of a high order.
As laborious historical students, Don Jose Toribio Polo, the author of an ecclesiastical history of Peruvian dioceses, and Don Enrique Torres Saldamando, the historian of the Jesuits in Peru, have great merit.
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
Peruvian literature since the independence has also attained high merit in the walks of poetry and romance.
Among Peruvian naturalists since the advent of the republic, the most distinguished have been Mariano Eduardo Rivero, the geologist, mineralogist and archaeologist, and his friend and colleague Nicolas de: Pierola, authors of Memorial de ciencias naturales.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
Its museum, which is of great historical and artistic value and includes a collection of portraits of the Peruvian viceroys and presidents, is in the upper floors of the Exposition Palace.
It is visited by ocean-going steamers, and is the centre of the Peruvian river transportation system.
There are two submarine cable lines on the Peruvian coastthe (American) Central and South American Co.
The Peruvian telegraph system connects with those of Ecuador and Bolivia.
There were 12 foreign steamship lines trading at Peruvian ports in 1908, some of them making regular trips up and down the coast at frequent intervals and carrying much of its coastwise traffic. Foreign sailing vessels since 1886 have not been permitted to engage in this traffic, but permission is given to steamships on application and under certain conditions.
Next in importance is cotton, which is grown along the greater part of the Peruvian coast, but chiefly in the departments of Piura, Lima and Ica.
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
There are two Forest kinds of rubber supplied by the Peruvian montana products.
As the species from which Ceara rubber is obtained (Hancorina speciosa) is found in Bolivia, it is probable that this is also a source of the Peruvian caucho.
The export of cinchona, or Peruvian bark, is not important in itself, being only 64 tons, valued at £1406 in 1905.
The Peruvian supply is practically exhausted through the destructive methods employed in collecting the bark, and the world now depends chiefly on Bolivia and Ecuador.
The crude oil is used on some of the Peruvian railways.
He must be not less than 35 years of age, a Peruvian by birth, in the enjoyment of all his civil rights, and domiciled in the republic ten years preceding the election.
Both senators and deputies are elected for terms of six years, and both must be native-born Peruvian citizens in the full enjoyment of their civil rights.
The independence of the Peruvian courts has not been scrupulously maintained, and there has been much criticism of their character and decisions.
The Peruvian navy was practically annihilated in the war with Chile, and the poverty of the country prevented for many years the adoption of any measure for its rebuilding.
In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.
In 1910 the foreign debt stood at £3,140,000, composed of (1) Peruvian Corporation £2,160,000; (2) wharves and docks, £80,000; (3) loan of 1905, £500,000; (4) loan of 1906, £400,000.
The monetary unit is the Peruvian pound (libra) which is uniform in weight and fineness with the British pound sterling.
The single standard has worked well, and has contributed much toward the recovery of Peruvian commerce and finance.
The expansion of the Inca rule and the formation of the Peruvian Empire was of modern growth at the time of the Spanish conquest, and dated from the victories of Pachacutic Inca who lived about a century before Huayna Capac, the Great Inca, whose death took place in 1526, the year before Pizarro first appeared on the coast.
The conquest of the Peruvian coast must always depend on the command of the sea.
But Peruvian history is not confined to the hostilities of these military rulers.
The military events of the war, calamitous for Peru, are dealt with in the article Chile Peruvian War.
Suffice it here to note that, after the crushing defeat of the Peruvian forces at Arica (June 7, 1880) Senor Nicolas de Pierola assumed dictatorial powers, with General Andres Caceres as commander-in-chief, but the defeats at Chorrillos (Jan.
15) proved the Chilean superiority, and put Lima at their mercy though desultory fighting was maintained by the remnants of the Peruvian army in the interior, under direction of General Caceres.
Marie galante is a harsh cotton of the Peruvian or Brazilian type.
The rarest of all the gulls is also found on the Peruvian coast, namely, the Xema furcatum.
The region of the Peruvian montana, which is 800 m.
But the most eminent Peruvian geographer is Dr Don Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan (1821-1886), whose Geografia del Peru appeared in 1861.
The true object of Chile was the conquest of the rich Peruvian province of Tarapaca, the appropriation of its valuable guano and nitrate deposits, and the spoliation of the rest of the Peruvian coast.