From the periplus of the Erythraean Sea 33-37 we learn that their authority extended over the shores of Carmania and the opposite coasts of Arabia.
Even though this sea-route was known, the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, published after the time of Pliny, recites the old itinerary around the coast of the Arabian Gulf.
In the first, the Periplus of the Outer Sea, in two books, in which he proposed to give a complete description of the coasts of the eastern and western oceans, his chief authority is Ptolemy; the distances from one point to another are given in stades, with the object of rendering the work easier for the ordinary student.
The second, the Periplus of the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and Tiberius.
Hoffmann, Marciani Periplus (1841); E.
In compiling his map he was able to avail himself of the information obtained by the bematists (surveyors who determined distances by pacing) who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns; of the results of the voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, and of the " Periplus " of Scylax of Caryanda, which described the coast from between India and the head of the Arabian Gulf.
Nordenskiiild's Periplus (Stockholm, 1869), and Th.
- About the 1st century of the Christian era a new kingdom grew up at Axum, of which a king Zoscales is mentioned in the Periplus Marls Erythraei.
Neither of these, however, can be the author of the Periplus of the Mediterranean, which has come down to us under the name of Scylax of Caryanda.
Chinnock (1893); Voyage of Nearchus with the spurious Periplus, W.
M'Crindle (Calcutta, 1879); Periplus of the Euxine, W.
The name, written Aksm and Aksum in the Sabaean and Ethiopic inscriptions in the place, is found in classical and early Christian writers in the forms of Auxome, Axumis, Axume, &c., the first mention being in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (c. A.D.
B.e.) whose periplus is translated by Avienus (end of 4th cent.
77, as Dilllnann has shown), in the Periplus of an anonymous contemporary of Pliny (§ 23) we read that Charibael of Zafar, " the legitimate sovereign of two nations, the Homerites and Sabaeans," maintained friendly relations with Rome by frequent embassies and gifts.
Pliny's account of Yemen, too, must be largely drawn from the expedition of Gallus, though he also used itineraries of travellers to India, like the Periplus Maxis Erythraei just quoted.
New colonies, however, seem to have followed from time to time, and, according to the Periplus (§ 16), some parts of the African coast were under the suzerainty of the Sabaean kings as late as the Sabaeo-Himyaritic period; the district of Azania was held for the Sabaean monarch by the governor of Maphoritis (Ma`afir), and was exploited by a Sabaean company.
Berard, Les Phe'niciens et l'Odyssee (1902-1903), who regards the Odyssey as "the integration in a Greek voo-Tos (home-coming) of a Semitic periplus," in the form of a poem written 900-850 B.C. by an Ionic poet at the court of one of the Neleid kings of Miletus.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea speaks of the island as peopled only in one part by a mixed race of Arab, Indian and Greek traders.
70, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions that the great commercial town of, Minnagar in the Indus Delta was under Parthian kings, who spent their time in expelling one another.
In the period of the Periplus (c. A.D.
Initiation included also an asylum or refuge within the strong walls of Samothrace, for which purpose it was used among others by Arsinoe, who, to show her gratitude, afterwards caused a monument to be erected there, the ruins of which were explored in 1 A grammarian of Patrae in Achaea (or Patara in Lycia), pupil of Eratosthenes (275-195 B.C.), and author of a periplus and a collection of Delphic oracles.