- Aegina passed with the rest of Greece under the successive dominations of Macedon, the Aetolians, Attalus of Pergamum and Rome.
They had been concealed in a cellar to prevent their falling into the hands of the book-collecting princes of Pergamum, and were in a very dilapidated condition.
On the death of Mithradates of Pergamum, tetrarch of the Trocmi, DeIotarus was a candidate for the vacancy.
The second, the Periplus of the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and Tiberius.
About 262 Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards (262).
Of these Pergamum now rose to greatness under Attalus I., and Antiochus Hierax perished as a fugitive in Thrace in 228/7.
Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor - for the dynasties in Pergamum, Bithynia and Cappadocia the Seleucid government was obliged to tolerate - Antiochus turned to recover the outlying provinces of the north and east.
Among the first of these benefactions was the great gymnasium of Ptolemy, built in the neighbourhood of the Agora about 250 B.C. Successive princes of the dynasty of Pergamum interested themselves in the adorn western entrance being the well-known Doric portico of Athena Archegetis with an inscription recording its erection from donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus.
The German Archaeological Institute, founded in 1874, has carried out excavations at Thebes, Lesbos, Paros, Athens and elsewhere; it has also been associated in the great researches at Olympia, Pergamum and Troy, and in many other important undertakings.
For the detailed accounts of the separate dynasties into which it was divided after Alexander's death, see Seleucid Dynasty, Antigonus, Pergamum, &C., and for its effect on the spread of Hellenic culture see Hellenism.
Thyateira was an ancient town re-peopled with Macedonians by Seleucus about 290 B.C. It became an ithportant station on the Roman road from Pergamum to Laodicea, and one of the "Seven Churches" of Asia (Rev. ii.
Pergamum was early distinguished for its medical school; but in this as in other respects its reputation was ultimately effaced by the more brilliant fame of Alexandria.
He was a Greek of Pergamum, educated in Alexandria, and long resident in Byzantium.
In 190 B.C. they were included among the provinces annexed by the Romans to the dominions of Eumenes of Pergamum; but somewhat rater they joined with the Pisidians and Cilicians in piratical ravages, and Side became the chief centre and slave mart of these freebooters.
By Macrinus he was entrusted with the administration of Pergamum and Smyrna; and on his return to Rome he was raised to the consulship about 220.
Antiochus of Commagene instituted an order of priests to celebrate the anniversary of his birth and coronation in a special sanctuary, and the kings of Pergamum claimed divine honours for themselves and their wives during their lifetime.
Of Pergamum about i 50 B.C., became one of the "Seven Churches" of Asia, and was called "Little Athens" on account of its festivals and temples.
The earliest zeal has passed away and heathen ways of thought and life are tolerated and practised at Pergamum and Ephesus, and faith is dying or dead at Laodicea and Sardis.
9, and of an actual martyrdom at Pergamum, ii.
14 we read of false teachers at Pergamum who held the "teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication."
On the altar of Pergamum he is depicted taking part in the battle of the giants.
Alcamenes, the rival or pupil of Pheidias, was the sculptor of a berm at Athens, a copy of which, dating from Roman times, was discovered at Pergamum in 1903.
Magnesia continued under the kings of Pergamum to be one of the most flourishing cities in this part of Asia; it resisted Mithradates in 87 B.C., and was rewarded with civic freedom by Sulla; but it appears to have greatly declined under the Roman empire, and its name disappears from history, though on coins of the time of Gordian it still claimed to be the seventh city of Asia.
" While the scholars of Alexandria were mainly interested in the verbal criticism of the Greek poets, a wider variety of studies was the characteristic of the school of Pergamum, the literary rival of Alexandria.
Pergamum was a home of learning for a large part of the 150 years of the Attalid dynasty, 283-133 B.C.
It became prominent when adopted by Philetaerus about 280 B.C. as the standard of Pergamum (42), and probably it had been shortly before adopted by the Ptolemies for Egypt.
From that time it is one of the principal units in the literature (Didymus, &c.), and is said to occur in the temple of Augustus at Pergamum as 13.8 (18).
According to Eunapius, he differed from Iamblichus on certain points connected with magic. He taught at Pergamum, his chief disciples being Eusebius and Maximus.
Soon afterwards Demaratus fled to Darius, who gave him the cities of Pergamum, Teuthrania and Halisarna, where his descendants were still ruling at the beginning of the 4th century (Xen.
For about 46 years they were the scourge of the western half of Asia Minor, ravaging the country, as allies of one or other of the warring princes, without any serious check, until Attalus I., king of Pergamum (241-197), inflicted several severe defeats upon them, and about 232 B.C. forced them to settle permanently in the region to which they gave their name.
After the Conics in eight Books had been written in a first edition, Apollonius brought out a second edition, considerably revised as regards Books i.-ii., at the instance of one Eudemus of Pergamum; the first three books were sent to Eudemus at intervals, as revised, and the later books were dedicated (after Eudemus' death) to King Attalus I.
Of Pergamum, and for twenty-six years maintained the traditions of the Academy.
PANAETIUS (c. 185-180 to 110 - 108 B.C.), Greek Stoic philosopher, belonged to a Rhodian family, but was probably educated partly in Pergamum under Crates of Mallus and afterwards in Athens, where he attended the lectures of Diogenes the Babylonian, Critolaus and Carneades.
This far from exhausts the external activity of the nation and the government: the establishment of studentships for the study of oriental languages enabled Germans to make their way in the Turkish and Persian empires, and to open up a fresh market for German goods; by the great excavations at Pergamum and Olympia Germany entered with great distinction on a field in which the way had been shown by France and Great Britain.
Alexandria, Antioch and Pergamum, were normally controlled altogether by royal nominees.
At Pergamum indeed and (at any rate after Antiochus IV.) at Antioch, forms of self-government subsisted upon which, of course, the court had its hand, whilst at Alexandria even such forms were wanting.
The literary schools of Alexandria and Pergamum built up grammatical science, and brought literary and artistic criticism to a fine point.
With the rise of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamum, a system of Pergamene foundation begins to oppose the Seleucid in the interior, bearing such names as Attalia, Philetaeria, Eumenia, Apollonis.
Athenodorus Cordylion, also of Tarsus, was keeper of the library at Pergamum, and was an old man in 47 B.C. In his enthusiasm for Stoicism he used to cut out from Stoic writings passages which seemed to him unsatisfactory.
The siege of Amorium in Phrygia was broken up, but Pergamum and Sardis were taken.
Of Pergamum, laid claim to the kingdom, which had been bequeathed by Attalus III.
The most northerly of the rivers that flow to the Aegean is the Caicus (Bakir Chai), which runs past Soma, and near Pergamum, to the Gulf of Chanderli.
Its principal tributaries are - the Phrygius (Kum Chai), which receives the waters of the Lycus (Giirduk Chai), and the Cogamus (Kuzu Chai), which in its upper course is separated from the valley of the Maeander by hills that were crossed by the Roman road from Pergamum to Laodicea.
An independent kingdom was founded at Pergamum, 283 B.C., which lasted until Attalus III., 133 B.C., made the Romans his heirs.
The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum, had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.
The Galatians, Pergamum, Rhodes and other Greek states.
After the defeat of Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, by the Romans, Ephesus was handed over by the conquerors to Eumenes, king of Pergamum, whose successor, Attalus Philadelphus, unintentionally worked the city irremediable harm.
The third Attalus of Pergamum bequeathed Ephesus with the rest of his possessions to the Roman people, and it became for a while the chief city, and for longer the first port, of the province of Asia, the richest in the empire.
Ephesus contested stoutly with Smyrna and Pergamum the honour of being called the first city of Asia; each city appealed to Rome, and we still possess rescripts in which the emperors endeavoured to mitigate the bitterness of the rivalry.
The league even sent troops to Pergamum against Antiochus (190).
At last Attila, king of Pergamum, defeated them in a series of battles commemorated on the Pergamene sculptures, and henceforth they were confined to a strip of land in the interior of Asia Minor, the Galatia of history.
PERGAMUM, or Pergamus (mod.
Athena Polias was the patron-goddess of Pergamum, and the legend combines the ethnological record of the connexion claimed between Arcadia and Pergamum with the usual belief that the hero of the city was son of its guardian deity, or at least of her priestess.
In 283 B.C. Philetaerus rebelled, Lysimachus died without being able to put down the revolt, and Pergamum became the capital of a little principality.
Pergamum thus became the capital of a considerable territory and a centre of art and regal magnificence.
The splendour of Pergamum was at its height under Eumenes II.
Pergamum continued to rank for two centuries as the capital, and subsequently, with Ephesus and Smyrna, as one of the three great cities of the province; and the devotion of its former kings to the Roman cause was continued by its citizens, who erected on the Acropolis a magnificent temple to Augustus.
Under the Roman Empire Pergamum was one of the chief seats of the worship of Asclepius "the Saviour"; invalids came from distant parts of the country to ask advice from the god and his priests.
Pergamum was the chief centre of the imperial cult under the early empire, and, in W.
Behind these buildings, again, is the Pergamum museum, which houses a unique collection, the result of the excavations at Pergamum.
In front is Lesbos, one of whose towns, Methymna, is said to have sent forth the founders of Assus, as early, perhaps, as r000 or 900 B.C. The whole south coast-line of the Troad is seen, and in the south-east the ancient territory of Pergamum, from whose masters the possession of Assus passed to Rome by the bequest of Attalus III.