The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
The bottom of a crucible is perforated by a pipe which projects into the crucible to about two-thirds of its height.
With another form of gas stove coke is used in place of the perforated asbestos; the fire is started with the gas, which, when the coke is well alight, may be dispensed with, and the fire kept up with coke in the usual way.
When the bud is nearly complete, the body-wall of the parent immediately below it becomes perforated, placing the coelenteric cavity of the parent in secondary communication with that of the bud (H), doubtless for the better nutrition of the latter.
The wall between them is perforated, giving passage to coarse strands of protoplasm.
Cells of this type are often called trumpet-hyphae (though they have no connection with the hyphae of Fungi), and in some genera of Laminariaceae those at the periphery of the medulla simulate the sieve-tubes of the higher plants in a striking degree, even (like these latter) developing the peculiar substance callose on or in the perforated cross-walls or sieve-plates.
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
Above is a graceful balustrade behind which is a lofty roof, and at the angles are towers perforated for the passage of the light.
Bryan, in which the analytical equations of motion are deduced of a perforated solid in liquid, from considerations purely hydrodynamical.
Monstera is a tropical American genus of climbing shrubs, with large often much-perforated leaves; the fruiting spikes of a Mexican species, M.
The temples on the east side of the Otolum are distinguished by tall narrow vaults, perforated by numerous square openings giving the appearance of coarse lattice work.
A and A' carry two light vertical rods S, M, the one as much in front of the other as there is space between two successive holes in the perforated ribbon.
In the Murray system the messages are first prepared in the form of a strip of perforated paper about half an inch wide.
The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls.
The nephridia are like those of the Oligochaeta in general structure; that is to say, they consist of drain-pipe cells which are placed end to end and are perforated by their duct.
Shell spirally coiled; a single ctenidium; eyes perforated; a horny operculum; lobes between the tentacles.
This paired organ consists of a string of cells which are perforated by a duct opening to the exterior and ending internally in a flame-cell.
At some distance from the shaft a square water-tight wall was built, and the space between it and the shaft was filled in with sand, which was purified of all saline matter by repeated washings; on the ground-level perforated stones set at the four corners of the basin admitted the rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets.
For pumping a well a valved working-barrel with valved sucker is attached to the lower end of the tubing, a perforated " anchor " being placed below.
This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.
Most of these are perforated for mounting on threads or wires, and had been, no doubt, originally connected together to form one or more of the elaborate girdles, necklaces and breast ornaments then worn by the women.3 On the bottom of the stone box there was similar dust, pieces of bone and jewelry, and also remains of what had been vessels of wood.
A third method consists in placing the specimen within bibulous paper, and enclosing the whole between two plates of coarsely perforated zinc supported in a wooden frame.
Solid impurities speedily become crushed, and are carried away by the water, while the rubber takes the form of an irregular sheet perforated by numerous holes.
Small objects are often heaped together in perforated trays or ladles, the cathode connecting-rod being buried in the midst of them.
In front of the naked eye was held a piece of copper foil perforated by a fine needle hole.
At other parts of the field the effect is the same, in accordance with the principle known as Babinet's, whether the imaginary screen in front of the object-glass is generally transparent but studded with a number of opaque circular disks, or is generally opaque but perforated with corresponding apertures.
If the eye, provided if necessary with a perforated plate in order to reduce the aperture, be situated inside the shadow at a place where the illumination is still sensible, and be focused upon the diffracting edge, the light which it receives will appear to come from the neighbourhood of the edge, and will present the effect of a silver lining.
Thus, to refer again to the acoustical analogue in which plane waves are incident upon a perforated rigid screen, the circumstances of the case are best represented by the first method of resolution, leading to symmetrical secondary waves, in which the normal motion is supposed to be zero over the unperforated parts.
E is a valve in the inlet pipe opening into the cylinder; and A the piston is perforated by one or more holes, each fitted with valves opening outwards on its upper surface.
He supposed a cylindrical vessel full of water to be perforated in its bottom with a small hole by which the water escaped, and the vessel to be supplied with water in such a manner that it always remained full at the same height.
Each cistern is fitted kith a perforated false bottom, on which a blanket or specially woven cloth is placed, to receive the char which is poured in from the top, and packed as evenly as possible until the cistern is filled.
At Magdalen College, Oxford, is one which is perforated, and has a most beautiful effect.
They usually take the form of cast iron open stoves fitted with a number of Bunsen burners which heat perforated lumps of asbestos.
In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.
The messages in the form of perforated tape are then passed through an automatic transmitter, something like a Wheatstone transmitter, at a speed of about 100 words a minute.
This received perforated tape is then used to control what is known as the printer or automatic typewriter, a machine that translates the tape perforations into letters and prints the messages in Roman type in page form.
As in some other systems retransmission is effected from the received perforated tape.
Sieve Tubes.The sieve tubes consist of partially fused rows of cells, the transverse cr lateral walls being perforated by minute openings, through which the contents of the cells are connected with each other, and which after a certain time become closed by,the formation of callus on the sieve plates.
The lacrymal is always present, and perforated by a glandular duct.
The three middle metatarsals become fused together into a cannon bone; the upper part of the third middle metatarsal projects behind and forms the so-called hypotarsus, which in various ways, characteristic of the different groups of birds (with one or more sulci, grooved or perforated), acts as guiding pulley to the tendons of the flexor muscles of the toes.
2 b) possess slender, curved, hollow mandibles, which are perforated at the tip and at the base, being thus adapted for sucking the juices of victims. Large dyticid larvae often attack small fishes and tadpoles.
As a source of light he used sunshine passing through a very small hole perforated in a metal plate, or condensed by a lens of short focus.
The Motion of a Perforated Solid Liquid.
It consists of a vertical column divided into a number of sections by horizontal plates, which are perforated so that the ascending vapours have to traverse a layer of liquid.
The thurible, the proper ecclesiastical term for the vessel in the Western Church, is usually spherical in form, though often square or polygonal, containing a small receptacle for the charcoal and covered by a perforated lid; it is carried and swung by three chains, a fourth being attached to the lid, thus allowing it to be raised at intervals for the volume of smoke to be increased.
Through perforated "r:sette-plates" in the dividing walls.
The poison-fangs are "solenoglyphous," perforated, having a wide hole on the anterior side at the base, in connexion with the duct of the large, paired, poison-glands, the presence of which adds considerably to the characteristic broadness of the head.
It has been shown that this behaviour of dielectrics can be imitated by a mechanical model consisting of a series of perforated pistons placed in a tube of oil with spiral springs between each piston.
The " cradle " is a simple appliance for treating somewhat larger quantities, and consists essentially of a box, mounted on rockers, and provided with a perforated bottom of sheet iron in which the " pay dirt " is placed.
The upper end contains a perforated riddle plate which is placed directly over the riffle box, and under certain circumstances mercury may be placed behind the riffles.
The discharge of the comminuted material takes place through an aperture, which is covered by a thin steel plate perforated with numerous slits about Ath in.
In the Thies process, used in many districts in the United States, the vats are rotating barrels made, in the later forms, of iron lined with lead, and provided with a filter formed of a finely perforated leaden grating running from one end of the barrel to the other, and rigidly held in place by wooden frames.
It flows generally east by south through a tortuous valley as far as Miranda de Ebro, passing through the celebrated Roman bridge known as La Horadada ("the perforated"), near Ona in Burgos.