The notions of the penumbra and umbra are important in considering eclipses (q.v.).
In the neighbourhood surrounding the penumbra the granules appear to be packed more closely, forming brilliant patches called faculae.
The amount of want of illumination in each portion of the penumbra is roughly indicated by the shading.
There will be a gradual increase of brightness in the penumbra from total darkness at the edge next the geometrical shadow to full illumination at the outer edge.
But if we place a body at a distance of a foot or two only from the arc, the shadow cast will have as much of penumbra as if the sun had been the source.
The penumbra remains the penumbra, but it is now darkest where before it was brightest, and vice versa.
The first, taken alone, might seem to bear out Wilson's theory, but the others show that the penumbra is really very unsymmetrical and much broader on the side towards the limb, apart from anything which perspective may have to say.
When the slit of the spectroscope is set across a spot, it shows, as might be expected, a general reduction of brightness as we pass from the photosphere to the penumbra; and a still greater one as we pass to the umbra.
Each spot shows with more or less completeness a ring-shaped penumbra enclosing a darker umbra; the umbra, which looks black beside' the photosphere, is actually about as brilliant as limelight.
To draw a trustworthy conclusion it is necessary that the spot should be quiescent, show a well-developed and fairly symmetrical penumbra, and be observed near the limb and also near the centre, and these conditions are satisfied in so few cases as to withdraw all statistical force from the conclusion.
He pointed out that they were limited to a certain defined zone on the sun's surface; he noted the faculae with which they are associated, the penumbra by which they are bordered, their slight proper motions and their rapid changes of form.
When the eclipse is total, there is a real geometrical shadow - very small compared with the penumbra (for the apparent diameters of the sun and moon are nearly equal, but their distances are as 370: I); when the eclipse is annular, the shadow is all penumbra.
Some lines of certain elements are always seen fainter or thinner than on the photosphere, or even wholly obliterated; others sometimes show the same features, but not always; other lines of the same elements, perhaps originating at a level above the spot, are not affected; there are also bright streaks where even the general absorption of the spot is absent, and sometimes such a bright line will correspond to a dark line on the photosphere; most generally the lines are intensified, generally in breadth, sometimes in darkness, sometimes in both together, sometimes in one at the expense of the other; certain lines not seen in the photosphere show only across the umbra, others cross umbra and penumbra, others reach a short distance over the photosphere.
The breadth of the penumbra when the source and screen are nearly equidistant from the opaque body is equal to the diameter of the luminous source.
If we suppose the number of sources to increase indefinitely, so as finally to give the appearance of a luminous surface as the source of light, it is obvious that the degrees of darkness at different portions of the penumbra will also increase indefinitely; i.e.